Developing The Adolescent Happiness Scale: Validity and reliability study
The purpose of the current study is to develop the Adolescent Happiness Scale (AHS). A systematic approach was utilized for developing the scale. In this study, the data were collected from 1136 adolescents including 490 females and 646 males between 11-17 years of age. The psychometric properties of AHS were analyzed by means of item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, criterion-related validity, internal consistency and test-retest methods. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses results revealed that the scale had a single-factor structure. Within the scope of the criterion-related validity studies, significant positive correlations were found between AHS and positive affects and overall happiness levels, and a significant negative correlation was found between AHS and negative affects. The internal consistency coefficient of AHS was .92 for the first study and .91 for the second study. Test-retest reliability coefficient was determined to be .74. In conclusion, AHS can be recommended as a reliable and valid tool in measuring the happiness level of adolescents.
Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2006). Measuring happiness with a single-item scale. Social Behavior and Personality, 34, 139-150.
Bahrami, S., Rajaeepour, S., Ashrafi, H., Zahmatkesh, M., & Nematolahi, Z. (2011). The relationship between students’ study habits, happiness and depression. Iran. J. Nurs. Midwifery Res. 16 (3), 217-221.
Bloodworth, A., & McNamee, M. (2007). Conceptions of well-being in psychology and exercise psychology research: a philosophical critique. Health Care Analysis, 15(2), 107-121.
Cheng, H. & Furnham, A. (2002). Personality, peer relations, and self-confidence as predictors of happiness and loneliness. Journal of Adolescence, 25(3), 327–339.
Cihangir Çankaya, Z. & Meydan, B. (2018). Ergenlik döneminde mutluluk ve umut. Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 17 (65), 207-222.
Cohn, M., Fredrickson, B., Brown, S., Mikels, J., & Conway, A. (2009). Happiness unpacked: Positive emotions increase life satisfaction by building resilience. Emotion, 9 (3), 361–368.
Damon, W. (2004). What is positive youth development? Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 591, 13-24.
Datu, J. A. D. & Valdez, J. P. M. (2012). Exploring Filipino adolescents’ conception of happiness. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, December 2012 - Special Issue on Positive Psychology, 1(3), 21-29.
Demirci, İ. & Ekşi, F. (2015). Ergenler için beş boyutlu iyi oluş modeli: EPOCH ölçeği’nin Türkçe formunun geçerliği ve güvenirliği.Gençlik Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(3), 9-30.
DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale Development. SAGE Pub.
Diener, E. & Chan, M. Y. (2011). Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity.Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3(1),1-43.
Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national ındex. American Psychologist, 55(1), 34-43.
Diener, E. Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2009). Subjective well-being: The science of happinessand life satisfaction. In S. J. Lopez& C.R. Snyder (Eds), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp.187-194). New York: Oxford University.
Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Smith, H., & Shao, L. (1995). National differences in reported subjective wellbeing: Why do they occur? Social Indicators Research, 34, 7–32.
Doğan, T. & Sapmaz, F. (2012). Oxford mutluluk ölçeği Türkçe formunun psikometrik özelliklerinin üniversite öğrencilerinde incelenmesi. Düşünen Adam Psikiyatri ve Nörolojik Bilimler Dergisi, 25, 297-304.
Eryılmaz, A. (2009). Ergen öznel iyi oluş ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi. Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(4), 975-989.
Furnham, A. & Cheng, H. (2000). Lay theories of happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1, 227-246.
Gençöz, T. (2000). Positive and negative affect schedule: A study of validity and reliability. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 15(46), 19-28.
Giacomoni, C. H., Souza, L. K., & Hutz, C. S. (2014). O conceito de felicidad en crianc¸as (The concept of happiness in children). Psico-USF, Bragranc¸a Paulista, 19, 143–153.
Heizomi, H., Allahverdipour, H., Jafarabadi, M. A., & Safaian, A. (2016). Happiness and its relation to psychological well-being of adolescents. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 16, 55–60.
Hills, P. & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford happiness questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1071-1082.
Holder, M. D. & Coleman, B. (2008). The contribution of temperament, popularity, and physical appearance to children’s happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 279-302.
Huebner, E. S., Gilman, R., & Laughlin, J. E. (1999). A multimethod investigation of the multidimensionality of children’s well-being reports: Discriminant validity of life satisfaction and self-esteem.Social Indicators Research, 46, 1-22.
Işık, E. & Bedel, A. (2015). Ergenlerde başa çıkma stratejileri ile öznel iyi oluşları arasındaki ilişkiler. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 34, 53-60.
Işık, Ş. &Üzbe Atalay, N. (2017). Çocuklarda Mutluluğunun İncelenmesine Yönelik Nitel Bir Çalışma. Paper presented at the 2nd Eurasian Congress of Positive Psychology, (12-14 May), İstanbul, Turkey. Retrieved from http://www.ppcongress2017.org/uploads/file/ppcongress-2017-kitapcik.pdf?55
Kan, A. (2016). Ölçme araçlarında bulunması gereken nitelikler. In H. Atılgan (Ed), Eğitimde Ölçme ve Değerlendirme (pp. 24-80). Ankara: Anı Publishing.
Kass, R. A., & Tinsley, H. E. (1979). Factor analysis. Journal of Leisure Research, 11(2), 120-138.
Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., & Kurokawa, M. (2000). Culture, emotion, and well-being: Good feelings in Japan and the United States. Cognition and Emotion, 14(1), 93-124.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. NY: The Guilford Press.
Knoop, H. H. (2011). Education in 2025: How positive psychology can revitalize education. In D. L. Stewart, M. Csikszentmihalyi, & J. Nakamura (Eds), Applied positive psychology: Improving everyday life, health, schools, work, and society (pp.97-115). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
Köse, N. (2015). Ergenlerde akran ilişkilerinin mutluluk düzeyine etkisi. İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 2(4), 1-6.
Kristjansson, K. (2012). Positive psychology and positive education: Old wine in new bottles? Educational Psychologist, 47(2), 86-105.
Kye, S. Y., Kwon, J. H., & Park, K. (2016). Happiness and health behaviors in South Korean adolescents: A cross-sectional study. Epidemiology and Health, 38, 1-7.
Lambert, M., Fleming, T., Ameratunga, S., Robinson, E., Crengle, S., …& Marry, S. (2014). Looking on the bright side: An assessment of factors associated with adolescents‘ happiness. Advances in Mental Health, 12(2), 101-109.
Lerner, R. M.& Lerner, J. V. (2009). Report of the findings from the first six years of the 4-H study of positive youth development. Medford, MA: Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development.
Lucas, R. E. & Diener, E. (2009). Personality and subjective well-being. The Science of wellbeing, 37, 75-102.
Lyubomirsky, S. & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137-155.
Mahon, N. E. & Yarcheski, A. (2002). Alternative theories of happiness in early adolescents. Clinical Nursing Research, 11, 306-323.
McKnight, C. G., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. (2002). Relationships among stressful life events, temperament, problem behavior, and global life satisfaction in adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 677-687.
Mojs, E., Stanisławska-Kubiak, M., Skommer, M., & Wojciak, R. (2009). Smoking from the perspective of positive psychology. Przeglad Lekarski, 66(10), 765-767.
Nairn, A., Duffy, B., Sweet, O., Swiecicka, J., & Pope, S. (2011). Children’s well-being in UK, Sweden and Spain: the role of inequality and materialism (Ipsos MORI Social research insitute). Retrived July 8, 2011, fromhttp://www.unicef.org.uk/Documents/Publications/.
Nunnally, J. C. & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Özdemir, Y. & Sağkal, A. S. (2016).Ergenler için okulda öznel iyi oluş ölçeği’nin Türkçe’ye uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 17(2), 333-350.
Park, N. (2004a). Character strengths and positive youth development. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591(1), 40-54
Park, N. (2004b). The role of subjective well-being in positive youth development. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591(1), 25-39.
Park, N.& Peterson, C. (2008). Positive psychology and character strengths: Application to strengths-based school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 12, 85-92.
Phillips, T. (2012). The influence of family structure vs. family climate on adolescent wellbeing. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 29(2), 103-110.
Proctor, C., Linley, P., & Maltby, J. (2010). Very happy youths: Benefits of very high life satisfaction among adolescents. Social Indicators Research, 98(3), 519–532.
Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudiamonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141-166.
Saban, A., Flisher, A. J., Grimsrud, A., Morojele, N., London, L., Williams, D. R., & Stein, D. J. (2014). The association between substance use and common mental disorders in young adults: Results from the South African Stress and Health (SASH) survey. The Pan African Medical Journal, 17(11), 1-7.
Salavera, C., Usán, P., Pérez, S., Chato, A., & Vera, R. (2017). Differences in happiness and coping with stress in secondary education students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 237, 1310-1315.
Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.
Schmid, K. L., Phelps, E., & Lerner, R. M. (2011). Constructing positive futures: Modeling the relationship between adolescents’ hopeful future expectations and intentional self regulation in predicting positive youth development. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 1127-1135.
Sihlova, J. (2008). Happiness in ancient philosophy. Happiness: Cognition, Experience, Language, 3, 12-22.
Suldo, S. M. & Huebner, E. S. (2006). Is extremely high life satisfaction during adolescence advantageous? Social Indicators Research, 78, 179–203.
Sun, R. C.& Shek, D. T. (2010). Life satisfaction, positive youth development and problem behaviour among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Social Indicators Research, 95(3), 455-474.
Swinyard, W. R., Kau, A., & Phua, H. (2001). Happiness, materialism, and religious experience in the US and Singapore. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2, 13-32.
Tagay, Ö.,& Baltacı, H. Ş. (2017). Ergenlerde öznel iyi oluş ve zaman tutumu: Benlik saygısı ve iyimserliğin aracı rolü. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 41, 131-144.
Tavşancıl, E. (2005). Tutumların ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi. Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
Telef, B. B. (2014). School children's happiness inventory: The validity and reliability study. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 6 (1), 130-143.
Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., ...& Stewart-Brown, S. (2007). The Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale (WEMWBS): Development and UK validation. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 5(1), 63-76.
Thoilliez, B. (2011). How to grow up happy: An exploratory study on the meaning of happiness from children’s voices. Child Indicators Research, 4, 323–351.
Tonga, Z. & Halisdemir, D. (2017). Ergen öznel iyi oluşu ile benlik saygısı arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Journal of Social And Humanities Sciences Research, 4(12), 1214-1221.
Turgut, M. F. (1995). Ölçekleme Teknikleri. Ankara: ÖSYM Publishing.
Uçan, A. & Kıran Esen, B. (2015). Ergenlerin öznel iyi oluşlarının toplumsal konum ile ilgili risk alma değişkenine göre incelenmesi. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 11(2), 288-299.
Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L. (2014). Happiness decreases during early adolescence: A study on 12- and 15-year-old Finnish students. Psychology, 5, 541-555.
Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L., & Lehto, J. E. (2013). Social factors explaining children’s subjective happiness and depressive symptoms. Social Indicators Research, 111(2), 603-615.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070.
Vaingankar, J. A., Subramaiam, M., Lim, Y. W., Sherbourne, C., Luo, N., ...& Bradley, M. (2012). From well-being to positive mental health: conceptualization and qualitative development of an instrument in Singapore. Quality of Life Research, 21(10), 1785-1794.
Veenhoven, R. (2008). Healthy happiness: Effects of happiness on physical health and the consequences for preventive health. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9 (3), 449-469.
Veenhoven, R. (2010). How universal is happiness? In E. Diener, J. F. Helliwell, & D. Kahneman (Eds), International differences in well-being (pp.328-351). New York: Oxford University Press.
Copyright (c) 2019 Şerife Işık, Nazife Üzbe Atalay (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.