Attitudes of secondary school students towards outdoor games: A scale development study


  • Emine Akkaş Baysal ASSIST.PROF
  • İjlal Ocak
  • Kübra Öztürk



outdoor, game, attitute


The aim of this study was to develop a reliable and viable scale to determine secondary school students' attitudes towards outdoor games. During development process, firstly, relevant area was scanned and key expressions that would prepare theoretical ground were determined. Based on these key expressions, 11 open-ended questions were prepared and applied to a group of 80 students. In line with data obtained, a 5-point Likert type scale pre-trial form consisting of 64 items was created. The pre-trial form was applied to a total of 254 secondary school students in Afyonkarahisar and Uşak. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used for factor structure. According to analyzes, The Secondary School Students' Outdoor Games Attitude Scale consists of 3 sub-dimensions and 29 items. It was seen that factor loads of items were between .776 and .510. It was determined as 54% of variance value for whole scale. CFA result were calculated as χ²=851, RMSEA=0.0709; SRMR=0.0509; CFI=0.881 and TLI=0.871. Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was calculated as .95. In addition, test-retest application was carried out with 30 participants. There was a 30-day time difference between the first and second applications. Correlation coefficients between factors was found to be significant. According to the analyzes performed, validity and reliability of scale were ensured. The scale was named as “The Secondary School Students' Attitude Scale towards Outdoor Games”.


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How to Cite

Akkaş Baysal, E., Ocak, İjlal, & Öztürk, K. . (2022). Attitudes of secondary school students towards outdoor games: A scale development study. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 12(1), 115–130.