The models of early childhood parenting in families whose mothers are factory workers in Indonesia


  • Fauzi Fauzi IAIN Purwokerto
  • Moh. Roqip
  • Abdul Wachid Bambang Suharto
  • Heru Kurniawan
  • Ifada Novikasari
  • Fatwa Ali Kurniawan


parenting model, early childhood, case study, family


This research aims to describe and formulate the models of early childhood parenting in families whose mothers are factory workers. It uses an explorative descriptive qualitative approach in families having 0- 4 years old children whose mothers are workers in wig and fake eyelashes factory in Padamara, Purbalingga District. The data were collected by interview, observation, and documentation techniques, and were analyzed through content analysis and comparative analysis techniques. This case study research showed that there are two types of early childhood parenting models, first, family-based parenting model, and second, parenting model by alternative caregivers. The family-based parenting model consists of two subtypes of parenting models, namely (1) parenting by the nuclear family; in this model, the child is raised by the father; (2) parenting by extended family; in this model, there are two models of parenting being the model of parenting by the grandmother, and that by the relatives (aunt). As for the model of parenting by alternative caregivers, children are taken care of by babysitters who live around the children's residence. Each parenting model represents different parenting styles. The model of parenting by the grandmother represents permissive parenting style; the model of parenting by babysitters represents semi permissive-semi authoritative parenting style; the model of parenting by the relatives (aunt) represents semi authoritative parenting style; the model of parenting by fathers represents authoritative with tendencies semi-authoritarian parenting style.



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How to Cite

Fauzi, F., Roqip, M., Suharto, A. W. B., Kurniawan, H., Novikasari, I., & Kurniawan, F. A. (2021). The models of early childhood parenting in families whose mothers are factory workers in Indonesia . Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 11(3), 102–111. Retrieved from