The analysis of the relationship among school economic performance, teacher quality, income and consumption expenditures of private teachers before and during the pandemic Covid-19 in South Sulawesi


  • Muhammad Saleh Universitas Mulawarman
  • Zamruddin Hasid
  • Eny Rochaida



Consumption, income, pandemic, teacher quality, economic performance


This research to be conducted in South Sulawesi by taking several schools as a sample of the teaching population from couples of private senior high schools and Madrasah Aliah school. The research objectives were to identify and explain the relationship among school economic performance, teacher quality, income and consumption expenditures that were affected by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The finding showed that the economic performance had a positive relationship with teacher quality, the two variables had also positive relationships with income level and household consumption for both senior high school and madrasah teachers during and before pandemic time. The relationship between the two variables for the general teacher diet is strong, while the madrasa teacher is very weak. But for non-food the opposite happens. During the Covid-19 period, there was also a positive relationship between the two variables, but there was a decrease in the level of strength of the relationship for the two consumption expenditure groups, both madrasah teachers and general teachers. Furthermore, it was shown that Covid-19 had decline the economic performance   as well as the level of income and consumption expenditure of teachers.


Download data is not yet available.


Amory M. et al., (2020). Socio-Economic Impacts of COVID-19 on Household Consumption and Poverty. Economics of Disasters and Climate Change volume 4, pages453–479.

An Xuehui, (2018). Teacher Salaries and the Shortage of High-Quality Teachers in China’s Rural Primary and Secondary Schools. Chinese Education & Society, Volume 51, 2018 - Issue 2. Article | Published Online: 26 Mar 2018 | Views: 1536 | Citations: 2

Arief, Sritua. (1993). Economic Research Methodology. Jakarta: University of Indonesia article Published Online: 24 May 2016 | Views: 80 |

Big Dictionary Indonesian, 2017. Language Development and Development Agency. Ministry of Education and culture. Balai Pustaka, Jakarta.

Carvalho, et al., (2020). Effects of the COVID‐19 Pandemic on the Brazilian Electricity Consumption Patterns. Energy Research, Volume 45, Issue2.

Central Bureau of Statistics. 2020. Makassar City in 2020 Figures. Makassar.

Charisma, et al., (2016). Analysis of Electricity consumption Behavior: Case study Non-Business House Hold in Malang City. International Journal of Social and Local Economic Governance. Vol 2 No 2. e-ISSN: 2477-1929.

Chien, M. (2004). An Investigation of the Relationship of Organizational Structure, Employee's personality and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 5 (1/2) 428-431

Daft. (2010). A New Era of Management. Salemba Four. Jakarta

Danang S, (2013). Human Resource Management (Cet. Second; CAPS, Yogyakarta). (1999). License to Teach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishing

Dessler, Gary. (2002). Human Resource Management Indonesian Edition Volume 2. Jakarta: Prenhallindo.ez Mejia, et al.,1995)

France Caillavet, (2007). Acta Agriculture Scandinavica, Section C — Food Economics, Volume 2, 2005 - Issue 3-4 Article | Published Online: 18 Feb 2007 | Views: 38 | Citations: 1

Hasibuan, Malayu (2012). Human Resource Management. Bumi Aksara, Jakarta.

Hone, Z., & Marisennayya, S. (2019). Determinants of Household Consumption Expenditure in Debremarkos Town, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 62(1), 124-144.

Hsiao-Chuan Chang, (2003). International Trade, Productivity Growth, Education and the Wage Differential: A Case Study of Taiwan. Journal of Applied Economics Volume 6, 2003 - Issue 1

Huang, X. et al., (2020) The association between Home Environment and Quality of life in Children and Adolense in Hangzhou City, China. J Child Fam. Stud., vol.30, no.6, 2021, doi:10.1007/s 10826-021-01951-1.

Ibrahim Niankara, (2021). Education’s effect on food and monetary security in Burkina Faso: A joint semi-parametric and spatial analysis. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development Article | Published Online: 15 Nov 2021 | Views: 92

Ilga Lavrinovicha, at al. (2014). Influence of education on unemployment rate and incomes of

Illahi, et al., (2006). Determinant Analysis of Household Consumption Expenditure in Indonesia. DOI:

Jin Huang, (2017). Heterogeneous Effects of Child Development Accounts on Savings for Children’s Education. Journal of Policy Practice, Volume 16, 2017 - Issue 1

Jozef Konings and Stijn Vanormelingen, (2010). The Impact of Training on Productivity and Wages: Firm Level Evidence. The IZA Journal of Labor Policy. IZA DP No. 4731

Kusnendi, (2008). Models of Structural Equations One and Multigroup Up to LISREL. Alfabeta , Bandung.

Lang dan Evans. (2006). Models, Strategies, and Methods for Effective Teaching. Boston: Pearson.

Law of Indonesia No. 20 Tahun 2003 National education system in Indonesia.

Martin, Amory Cs, (2020). Socio-Economic Impacts of COVID-19 on Household Consumption and Poverty. Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 Economics of Disasters and Climate Change volume 4, pages453–479

McCowan, T. (2011), Human rights, capabilities and the normative basis of 'Education for All'. Theory and Research in Education. Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 283-298

Manurung, (2017). A Trilogy on Entrepreneurship: Creating the Enterprise.

Mulyadi, (2007), Balanced Scorecard: Contemporary Management Tools for Multiplying Corporate Financial Performance, Fifth Edition, Salemba Empat, Jakarta

Nicholss, G. (2002). Learning to Teach. Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited.

Novan, (2010). Compensation for Non-Civil Servant Teachers. Novanardy.blogspot. Com, March 17, 2010. 17, 2010).

Nugroho, Agus Eko. (2020). Survey of the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Indonesian Household Economy. Indonesian Institute of Knowledge

Rafi Khan, Shahrukh. (2010). Rationality in Public Sector Salary Scales: The Case of Rural Teachers in PakistanEducation Economics, Volume 10, 2002 - Issue 3. Article | Published Online: 01 Jul 2010 | Views: 63 | Citations: 3

Reny Noviasty and Rahmi Susanti, (2020). Changes in the Eating Habits of Nutrition Specialization Students During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Mulawarman Journal of Public Health (JKMM). DOI:

Robeyns, I. (2006), Three Models of Education: rights, capabilities and human capital. Theory and Research in Education. Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 69-84.

Sadono, (2016). Macroeconomics, Introductory Theory. RajaGrafindo Persada, Jakarta.

Sağlam, et al., (2016). A Study of Prospective Teachers’ Consumption Patterns on Special Days. Universal Journal of Educational Research 4(7): 1529-1532, 2016

Sembiring, et al., (2012). Organizational Culture & Performance: A Government Organizational Perspective. Bandung: Media Focus.

Sheth, Jagdish N. (2020). Impact of Covid-19 on Consumer Behavior: Will the Old Habits Return or Die? Journal of Business Research 117 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.05.059

Siska Purnama & Manurung, (2017). The Effect of Direct and Indirect Income to Emplee’s Loyalty. Case Study at Direktorat of Human resources in PT POS Indonesia.: Journal of Indonesian Applied Economics, Vol.6 No.1, 2017: 84-102

Soediyono, R. 1992: 165. Ekonomi Makro Pengantar Analisis Nasional Edisi ke empat. Liberty: Yogyakarta.

Subroto, Gatotot. 2014. The Relationship of Education and Economics, Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Journal of Education and Culture, Vol. 20 No. 3.

Sugiarto,S and Wibowo W. 2020. Determinant of Regional Household Final Consumption Expendiurte in Indonesia. JEJAK, Jurnal of Economics and Policy. Jejak vol 13, DOI

Tangkilisan, Hessel Nogi S. 2007. Public Management. PT Gramedia Widia Sarana Indonesia, Jakarta.

Vidyatmoko, et al., 2009. Factors Affecting Executive Compensation and Its Relationship to Company Performance: The Case of Plantation SOEs. Journal of Management and Agribusiness, Vol.6 No.2. DOI:

Yilmaz, Hacı Ömer, at. al. (2020). Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Eating Habits and Food Purchasing Behaviors of University Students. Kesmas. National Public Health Journal. Home Vol 15, No 3.

Zeynalova, et al., (2020). Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Haousehld Consumtion Expenditure in Azebaijan. Jurnal of Critical Reviews, ISSN 2394-5125, Vol 7 Issue 7




How to Cite

Saleh, M., Hasid, Z., & Rochaida, E. (2023). The analysis of the relationship among school economic performance, teacher quality, income and consumption expenditures of private teachers before and during the pandemic Covid-19 in South Sulawesi. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 13(2), 252–261.