Effectiveness of self-regulated Learning skills on web-based instruction attitudes in online environments
Keywords:Web based instruction, online environments, pandemic period, self-regulated learning skills, efficiency, resilience
In this study, pre-service teachers’ self-regulated learning skills in online environments were taken into consideration in particular, as they could not receive any support with respect to online education during the pandemic process and had thus to improve themselves to that effect. In this context, it was investigated whether self-regulated learning skills in online environments predict web-based learning attitudes in terms of both effectiveness and resistance dimensions. Designed in the context of the quantitative research approach, this study is based on the relational survey model. The research universe is composed of the pre-service teachers studying in the Turkish and English language teaching departments of Northern Cyprus universities during the 2020-2021 academic year. In conclusion, it was found as a result of this study that three of the self-regulated learning skills of the participating pre-service teachers in online environments, i.e. goal setting, task strategies, and help-seeking, predicted the attitudes of the pre-service teachers towards web-based teaching significantly and in the positive direction (Hypothesis 1), whereas only two of the self-regulated learning skills of the participating pre-service teachers in online environments, i.e. goal setting and task strategies, predicted the resistance of the pre-service teachers to web-based teaching significantly and in the negative direction (Hypothesis 2).
Aji, S. D., Hudha, M. N., Huda, C., Nandiyanto, A. B. D., & Abdullah, A. G. (2018). The improvement of learning effectiveness in the lesson study by using e-rubric. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 13(5), 1181-1189. Retrieved from http://jestec.taylors.edu.my/Vol%2013%20issue%205%20May%202018/13_5_4.pdf in 7.7.2021.
Akgün, F. (2018). The investigation of distance education students’ attitudes web based instruction and self-efficacy towards online technologies. In 9th International Computer & Instructional Technologies Symposium-ICITS2015 Full Paper Proceedings. Retrieved from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1AC1by7lCsnE5HBVomLxOHiz8Rn2pvpoc/view in 7.7.2021.
An, Z., Gan, Z., & Wang, C. (2020). Profiling Chinese EFL students’ technology-based self-regulated English learning strategies. Plos one, 15(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pone.0240094
An, Z., Wang, C., Li, S., Gan, Z., & Li, H. (2021). Technology-assisted self-regulated English language learning: Associations with English language self-efficacy, English enjoyment, and learning outcomes. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 3763. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020. 558466
Atasoy, R., Özden, C. & Kara, D. N. (2020). Evaluation of the effectiveness of e-course practices during the Covid-19 pandemic from the students’ perspective. Turkish Studies, 15(6), 95-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.44491
Atasoy, R. (2021). Öğrencilerin okula bağlılığı [School commitment of students]. IN N. Özdemir, S. Turan & Ö. Çoban (Eds.). 21. yüzyıl okullarını yeniden düşünmek [Rethinking 21st century schools] (pp. 335-366). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
Aydoğan, R. (2018). The effect of values education curriculum based on self regulated learning on students' academic achievements, democratic attitudes, life long learning competency. PhD Thesis, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın.
Barnard, L., Lan, W.Y., To, Y.M., Paton, V.O. & Lai, S.L. (2009). Measuring self-regulation in online and blended learning environments. The Internet and Higher Education, 12, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2008.10.005
Bradley, R. L., Browne, B. L., & Kelley, H. M. (2017). Examining the influence of self-efficacy and self-regulation in online learning. College Student Journal, 51(4), 518-530. Retvieved from https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/prin/csj/2017/00000051/00000004/art00008 in 5.07.2021.
Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çokluk, Ö. & Köklü, N. (2014) Statistics for Social Sciences. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Publications.
Büyüköztürk, S., Çakmak, E.K., Akgün, Ö.E., Karadeniz, S. & Demirel, F. (2016). Research methods. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Publications.
Chumbley, S., Haynes, J. C., Hainline, M. S., & Sorensen, T. (2018). A measure of self-regulated learning in online agriculture courses. Journal of Agricultural Education, 59(1), 153-170. https://doi.org/10.5032/jae.2018.01153
Davis, D. S., & Neitzel, C. (2011). A self-regulated learning perspective on middle grades classroom assessment. Journal of Educational Research, 104(3), 202-215. doi: 10.1080/00220671003690148.
Dunn, K. E, Rakes, G. C., & Rakes, T.A. (2014). Influence of academic self-regulation, critical thinking, and age on online graduate students’ academic help-seeking, Distance Education, 35(1), 75-89, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2014.891426
Egeli, S., & Özdemir, M. B. (2020). An overwiev of the reflections coronavirus pandemic Process on the North Cyprus education system. Education and Society in the 21st Century, 9(27), 779-804. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ egitimvetoplum/issue/60522/889516 in 5.7.2021.
Ercoşkun, N. Ç., & Gündoğdu, K. (2017). A validity and reliability study on the self-regulated learning encouragement scale. Uluslararası Eğitim Programları ve Öğretim Çalışmaları Dergisi, 7(13), 131-146. Retrieved from: http://www.ijocis.com/index.php/ijocis/article/view/148 in 5.7.2021.
Erdoğan, Y., Bayram, S., & Deniz, L. (2007). Web based instruction attitude scale: Explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses. Uluslararası İnsan Bilimleri Dergisi, (4)2, 1-14. Retrieved from https://toad.halileksi.net/sites/default/files/pdf/web-tabanli-ogretim-tutum-olcegi-toad.pdf in 11.7.2021.
Horzum, M. B. & Balta, Ö. Ç. (2008). Students’ achievement, motivation and computer anxiety level in different web based learning environments. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 34, 140-154. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/ article-file/87561 in 5.7.2021.
IBM Corp. (2013). IBM SPSS statistics for Windows (Version 23.0). Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Järvelä, S. & Järvenoja, H. (2011). Socially constructed self-regulated learning and motivation regulation in collaborative learning groups. Teachers College Record, 113(2), 350-374. Retrieved from https://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentId=15980 in 5.7.2021.
Jo, Y., Tomar, G., Ferschke, O., Rose, C. P., & Gasevic, D. (2016). Expediting support for social learning with behavior modeling. Retrieved from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.02836.pdf in 11.7.2021.
Kanık, M. (2021). Students’ perception of and engagement in reactive online education provided during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 8(2), 1063-1082. Retrieved from https://www.iojet.org/ index.php/IOJET/article/view/1014 in 5.7.2021.
Karasar, N. (2018). Scientific Research Method. Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
KeAB, (2021). Covid 19 pandemisinin Kuzey Kıbrıs eğitim sistemine etkileri [The effects of the Covid 19 pandemic on the Northern Cyprus education system]. Keab Education Report for 2020, Nicosia. Retrieved from https://www.kibriseab.org/userfiles/ RAPOR(1).pdf in 5.7.2021.
Kizilcec, R. F., & Halawa, S. (2015). Attrition and achievement gaps in online learning. Paper presented at Learning @ Scale 2015, March, Vancouver. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1145/2724660.2724680
Korkmaz, O., & Kaya, S. (2012). Adapting online self-regulated learning scale into Turkish. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE, (13)1, 52-67. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tojde/issue/16899/176119 in 11.7.2021.
KTÖS, (2020). Temel eğitim sistemine bir bakış [An analysis of education system]. Cyprus Turkish Teachers Trade Union, Nicosia. Retrieved from https://ktos.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/KT%C3%96S-Temel-E%C4%9Fitim-Sistemine-Bak%C4%B1%C5%9F-2020.pdf in 5.7.2021.
Lawson, M. J., Vosniadou, S., Van Deur, P., Wyra, M., & Jeffries, D. (2019). Teachers’ and students’ belief systems about the self-regulation of learning. Educational Psychology Review, 31(1), 223-251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-018-9453-7
Lin, J. W., Huang, H. H., & Chuang, Y. S. (2015). The impacts of network centrality and self‐regulation on an e‐learning environment with the support of social network awareness. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(1), 32-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/ bjet.12120
Littlejohn, A., Hood, N., Milligan, C., & Mustain, P. (2016). Learning in MOOCs: Motivations and self-regulated learning in MOOCs. The Internet and Higher Education, 29, 40–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.12.003
McKillup, S. (2012). Statistics explained: An introductory guide for life scientists (Second edition). United States: Cambridge University Press.
Metron Analytics Services, (2021). Covid 19 döneminde KKTC’de ilköğretimde uzaktan eğitim [Distance education in primary education in North Cyprus during Covid 19 period], Education Report, Nicosia.
Milligan, C., & Littlejohn, A. (2016). How health professionals regulate their learning in massive open online courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 31, 113–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2016.07.005
Moos, D. C., & Bonde, C. (2016). Flipping the classroom: Embedding self-regulated learning prompts in videos. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 21(2), 225-242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-015-9269-1
Muhametjanova, G., & Akmatbekova, A. (2019). The web-based learning environment in general physics course in a Public University in Kyrgyzstan. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 15(3), 1-8. https://doi.org/ 10.29333/ejmste/100409
Ni, A. Y. (2013). Comparing the effectiveness of classroom and online learning: Teaching research methods. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 19(2), 199-215. https://doi.org/10.1080/15236803.2013.12001730
Pett, Marjorie A. (1997), Nonparametric Statistic for Health Care Research: Statistic for Small Samples and Unusual Distributions, Sage Public: London, pp.39.
Simons, J., Beaumont, K., & Holland, L. (2018). What factors promote student resilience on a level 1 distance learning module? Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 33(1), 4-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680513.2017.1415140
Smith, S.S. (2006). Web-based instruction: A guide for libraries, (2 nd ed.), American Library Association, Chicago.
Stevens, J. P. (2009) Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (5 b.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. Pearson.
Venkatesh, M., & Sathyalakshmi, S. (2020). Smart learning using personalised recommendations in web-based learning systems using artificial bee colony algorithm to improve learning performance. Electronic Government, an International Journal, 16(1-2), 101-117. https://doi.org/10.1504/EG.2020.105253
Wolters C.A., Pintrich P.R., Karabenick S.A. (2005) Assessing academic self-regulated learning. In K.A. Moore & L.H. Lippman (Eds), What Do Children Need to Flourish? The Search Institute Series on Developmentally Attentive Community and Society, vol 3. Springer, Boston, MA . https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-23823-9_16
Yasakcı, A., & Özdal, H. (2019). An evaluation of the problems encountered by elementary school students while using internet. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 14(22), 204-219. Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/217146/ in 11.7.2021.
Zheng, L., Li, X., & Chen, F. (2016). Effects of a mobile self-regulated learning approach on students’ learning achievements and self-regulated learning skills. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 55(6), 616-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ 14703297.2016.1259080
Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of selfregulation (pp. 13-39). London: Elsevier Academic Press.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (2011). Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2013). From cognitive modeling to self-regulation: A social cognitive career path. Educational psychologist, 48(3), 135-147. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 00461520.2013.794676
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.