A review of the relationship between parental involvement and children's academic achievement and the role of family socioeconomic status in this relationship
Keywords:Cultural capital, social capital, parental involvement in education, socio-economic status, and academic achievement
Based on Bronfenbrenner's (1986) ecological system theory, Bourdieu's (1997) concept of cultural capital and Coleman's concept of social capital, the present study has examined the relationship between parents' involvement in their children’s education and their academic achievement as well as the role the socioeconomic status plays in this relationship. Results obtained from a re-examination of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2021 revealed that there was a positive correlation between parental involvement and academic achievement of children. Parental involvement at home and at school, such as parents’ reading to their children at home, providing encouragement and support for learning, maintaining high aspirations and expectations for their children’s education and academic success, establishing communication, discussing school issues with their children, all have positively impacted the academic achievement of children. Socio-economic status (SES) affected the relationship between parental involvement and school success of children and played a mediating role in this relationship. Children of families with higher socioeconomic status made better use of their parents' involvement thanks to their parent’s greater cultural capital. Nevertheless, the educational involvement that parents with lower socioeconomic status can demonstrate is important in that it reduces or eliminatates the disadvantages that children from poor and lower educated families may encounter and the risk of academic failure. The impact of increased parental involvement on poor and lower SES children was greater, and these children made better use of parental involvement and were able to boost their academic achievement to a certain extent.
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