The effect of collaborative problem solving & collaborative project-based learning models to improve the project competences of pre-service teachers


  • Abdur Rofik Raden Rahmat Islamic University of Malang, Indonesia,



Collaborative Problem Solving, Collaborative Project-Based Learning, and Project competence.


Project competence has become a new trend in the context of current learning outcomes, as it solves most of the complex problems done by team-based projects. Project competencies are complex and very interesting objects to implement from various perspectives, one of which is through the application of the Collaborative Problem Solving (CoLPS) and Collaborative Project-Based Learning (CPBL) model. This study is focused on examining the effect of the CoLPS and CPBL models in improving student project competencies. The research method used a quasi-experimental design and was carried out on 65 student-teacher candidates in the Department of Islamic Religious Education, Raden Rahmat Islamic University Malang, 2020/2021 academic year. The research subjects were divided into two groups, the experimental group (34) and the control group (31). The experimental group was taught with the CoLPS model and the control group was taught with the CPBL model. The data used a product performance assessment instrument and were analyzed using the independent sample t-test technique. The results of the analysis show that the CoLPS model is very effective in improving student project competencies. Students taught with the CoLPS model have better product quality than students taught with the CPBL model. The results of the observations regarding the effectiveness of the two models are also discussed.


Download data is not yet available.


Ariffin, A., Hamzah, N., Ismail, M.E., Samsudin, M.A., Md. Zain, A.N. (2020). Visualization Skills Among Engineering Students Using Problem Based Learning Fogarty Model. Journal of Technical Education and Training. 12 (1). pp.238–244. DOI:

Ashworth, K., Tapsak, S., & Li, S.T. (2012). Collaborative Problem Solving: Is Empathy the Active Ingredient?. Available at (Online) Graduate Student Journal of Psychology, 14, pp. 83-92.

Albay, E. M. (2019). Analyzing the effects of the problem solving approach to the performance and attitude of first year university students. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 1(1), 100006. doi:10.1016/j.ssaho.2019.100006.

Anderson, L.W., Krathwohl, D.R., Airasian, P.W., Cruikshank, K.A., Mayer, R.E., Pintrich, P.R., Raths, J., & Wittrock, M.C. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (ABRIDGED EDITION). New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Anderson, L.W., & Krathwohl, D.R. (2002). A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview THEORY INTO PRACTICE, 41(4), (pp. 212-218). College of Education, The Ohio State University.

Andersen, E.S. (2006). Toward a project management theory for renewal projects. The Project Management Institute, 37(4), 15-30.

Avery, Z., Castillo, M., Guo, H., Guo, J., Warter-Perez, N.W, D.S. & Dong, J. (2010). Implementing Collaborative Project-Based Learning Using the Tablet PC to Enhance Student Learning in Engineering and Computer. Conference Paper in Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference. DOI: 10.1109/FIE.2010.5673215.

Bell, S. (2010) Project-Based Learning for the 21st Century: Skills for the Future, The Clearing House. 83(2). (pp. 39-43). DOI: 10.1080/00098650903505415.

Bialik, M. & Fadel, C. (2015). Skills for the 21st Century: What Should Students Learn?. Boston, Massachusetts: Center for Curriculum Redesign.

Blomquist, T., Farashah, A. D., & Thomas, J. (2016). Project Management Self-Efficacy As A Predictor of Project Performance: Constructing and Validating A Domain-Specific Scale. International Journal of Project Management, 34(8), (pp.1417-1432). doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2016.07.010.

Boy, G.A., Jani, G., Manera, A., Memmott, M., Petrovic, B., Rayad, Y., Stephane, L., & Suri, N. (2016). Improving collaborative work and project management in a nuclear power plant design team: A humancentered design approach. Ann. Nucl.

Baser, D., Ozden, M. Y., & Karaarslan, H. (2017). Collaborative project-based learning: an integrative science and technological education project. Research in Science & Technological Education, 35(2), 131–148. doi:10.1080/02635143.2016.1274723.

Brilingaitė, A., Bukauskas, L., Juškevičienė, A. (2018) Competency Assessment in Problem-Based Learning Projects of Information Technologies Students. Informatics in Education, 17(1) pp- 21–44. DOI: 10.15388/infedu.2018.02.

Creswell, J. . (2009). Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approach (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publication, Inc.

Ching, D.A. (2020). Two Cubed Approach in a Collaborative Classroom and the Enhanced Algebra and Social Skills of College Students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(10), 4920 - 4930. DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2020.081064

Davis, A., Fidler, D., & Gorbis, M. (2011). Future work skills 2020. Palo Alto, CA: Institute for the Future.

Degeng, I.N.S. (2013). Ilmu Pembelajaran: Klasifikasi Variabel Untuk Mengembangkan Teori dan Penelitian. Bandung: Aras Media.

Dong, J. W-P.N. (2010). Improving Collaborative Project-Based Learning in Digital Engineering Based on Program Assessment. In Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Conference.

Gronlund, E. N & Waugh, K. C. (2009) Assessment of Student Achievement, New Jersey Columbus, Ohio: Perason Education, Inc.

Guan, S. & Mikolaj, P. (2002). Collaborative Problem Solving in the Online Environment: A Case Study of a Web-based Undergraduate Business Course. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). ED 477-020, IR 021-748.

Griffin, P. (2014). Performance Assessment of Higher Order Thinking. Journal of Applied Measurement, 15(1). (pp. 1-16).

Gauvain, M. (2018). Collaborative Problem Solving: Social and Developmental Considerations. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19(2), 53–58. doi:10.1177/1529100618813370

Graesser, A.C., Kuo, B-Chen., & Liao, Chen- H. (2017). Complex Problem Solving in Assessments of Collaborative Problem Solving. Journal of Intelligence. 5(10), (pp. 1-14). doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020010.

Graesser, A. C., Fiore, S. M., Greiff, S., Andrews-Todd, J., Foltz, P. W., & Hesse, F. W. (2018). Advancing the Science of Collaborative Problem Solving. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19(2), 59–92. doi:10.1177/1529100618808244

Grippa, F., Secundo, G., & Passiante, G. (2009). An integrated model to monitor and evaluate Web 2.0 project-based learning. In M. D. Lytras, E. Damiani, J. M. Carroll, R. D. Tennyson, D. Avison, A. Naeve, A. Dale, P. Lefrere, F. Tan, J. Sipior., and G. Vossen (Eds.), Visioning and Engineering the Knowledge Society: A Web Science Perspective (pp. 50-59). New York: Springer.

Hashim, S., Rahman, M.H.A., Nincarean, D., Jumaat, N.F., & Utami, P. (2019). Knowledge Construction Process in Open Learning System among Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Practitioners. Journal of Technical Education and Training. 11 (1). pp.073–080. DOI:

Hanapi, Z., Rui, T.J., Rus, R.C., Kiong, T.T., & Mohamed, S. (2020). Developing Instruments for Employability Skills Measurement for Trainee Teachers in Technical and Vocational Education Field. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 12(1). pp.175–180. DOI:

Huysken, K., Olivey, H., McElmurry, K., Gao, M., & Avis, P. (2019). Assessing Collaborative, Project-based Learning Models in Introductory Science Courses. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. 19(1). (pp. 6-28). DOI: 10.14434/josotl.v19i1.26777.

Harding, S.-M. E., Griffin, P. E., Awwal, N., Alom, B. M., & Scoular, C. (2017). Measuring Collaborative Problem Solving Using Mathematics-Based Tasks. AERA Open, 3(3), 233285841772804. doi:10.1177/2332858417728046

Harney, O.M., Hogan, M.J., Broome, B., Hall, T., & Ryan, C. (2015). Investigating the effects of prompts on argumentation style, consensus and perceived efficacy in collaborative learning. Springer: International Society of the Learning Sciences, Inc. DOI 10.1007/s11412-015-9223-1.

Hesse, F., Care, E., Buder, J., Sassenberg, K., and Griffin, P. (2015). A Framework for Teachable Collaborative Problem Solving Skills, In P. Griffin & E. Care (Eds.), Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills: Methods and Approach. (pp. 37-56). Dordrecht: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-9395-7_2.

Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, R,T. (2013). The Impact of Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Learning Environments on Academic Achievement. Hattie, J., & Anderman, E. (Eds.). (in press). International handbook of student achievement.

Jaime, A., Blanco, J. M., Domínguez, C., Sánchez, A., Heras, J., & Usandizaga, I. (2016). Spiral and Project-Based Learning with Peer Assessment in a Computer Science Project Management Course. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 25(3), 439–449. doi:10.1007/s10956-016-9604-x

Kim, D., & Lim, C. (2017). Promoting socially shared metacognitive regulation in collaborative project-based learning: a framework for the design of structured guidance. Teaching in Higher Education, 23(2), (pp. 194-211). doi:10.1080/13562517.2017.1379484.

Kim, S.-J. (2005). Collaborative interaction behaviors in an information technology problem-solving context: cognitive movements of the helper and the helped. Journal of Information Science, 31(6), 483–495. doi:10.1177/0165551505057008

Kulkarni, G., Deshmukh, P., & Barzman, D. (2010). Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) as a Primary Method of Addressing Acute Pediatric Pathological Aggression Along with Other Modalities. Psychiatric Quarterly. 81(2), 167–175. doi:10.1007/s11126-010-9126-2

Kluge, A. (2006). Workplace Oriented Collaborative Problem Solving as a Tool for Active Knowledge Management. In J. N. Streumer (eds.), Work-Related Learning, (pp. 195-216). Netherlands: Springer. 10.1007/1-4020-3939-5

Kluge, A. (2006). Workplace Oriented Collaborative Problem Solving as a Tool for Active Knowledge Management. In J. N. Streumer (eds.), Work-Related Learning, (pp. 195-216). Netherlands: Springer. 10.1007/1-4020-3939-5

Kerlinger, F. N. (2000). Foundations of Behavioral Research. San Diego, CA: Harcourt College Publishers.

Lu, H-K. & Lin, P-C. (2017). A Study of the Impact of Collaborative Problem-Solving Strategies on Students’ Performance of Simulation-Based Learning-A Case of Network Basic Concepts Course. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 7(5), (pp. 361-366). doi: 10.18178/ijiet.2017.7.5.895.

Lin, C.-L. (2017). The Development of an Instrument to Measure the Project Competences of College Students in Online Project-Based Learning. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 27(1), 57-69. doi:10.1007/s10956-017-9708-y.

Lin, K.-Y., Yu, K.-C., Hsiao, H.-S., Chu, Y.-H., Chang, Y.-S., & Chien, Y.-H. (2015). Design of an assessment system for collaborative problem solving in STEM education. Journal of Computers in Education, 2(3), 301–322.

Lamb, S., Maire, Q., & Doecke, E. (2017). Key Skills for The 21st Century: An Evidence-Based Review. Education: Future Frontiers. Analytical Report. Australia: Centre for International Research on Education System (CIRES).

Lee, M.F., Sohod, S.N.M., Rahman, A.A. (2019). Exploring the Mastery Level of Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skill Among the Technical Undergraduate. Journal of Technical Education and Training. 11 (3). pp.009–014. DOI:

Mohamad, M.M., Heong, Y.M., Rajuddin, M.R., Keong, T.T. (2011). Identifying Relationship Involving Learning Styles and Problem Solving Skills Among Vocational Students. Journal of Technical Education and Training. 3 (1). pp.37-45.

Mohamed, W.A.W., Omar, B., Romli, M.F.R. (2010). Developing Problem Solving Skills for Lifelong Learning Through Work-Based Learning Among Community College Students. Journal of Technical Education and Training. 2 (1). pp.1-8.

Mustapha, R., Sadrina, Nashir, I.M., Azman, M. N. A., & Hasnan, K. A. (2019). Assessing the Implementation of The Project-Based Learning (PjBL) in The Department of Mechanical Engineering At A Malaysian Polytechnic. Journal of Technical Education and Training. 12(1). PP.100–118. DOI:

Moskal, B. M. 2001. ‘Scoring Rubrics: What, When and How?’ In Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 2000–2001, edited by L. M. Rudner and W. D. Schafer, 22–29. Accessed June 23, 2012.

Machali, Imam. 2016. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Panduan Praktis Merencanakan, Melaksanakan dan Analisis dalam Penelitian Kuantitatif. Yogyakarta: MPI Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga.

Nelson, L.M. (1998). Collaborative Problem Solving: An Instructional Theory for Learning Throught Small Group Instruction. Department of Instructional Systems Technology Indiana University: UMI Company.

Nelson, L.M. (2009). Collaborative Problem Solving. In Reigeluth, Charles M. (Eds.). Instructional-Design Theories and Models Volume II: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. (chap.) 11. (Pp. 241-267). New York: Routledge 711 Third Avenue.

Omar, N., Mohamad, M.M., Mukhtar, M.I., Paimin, A.N. (2019). Influence of Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Elements in Promoting Engineering Problem Solving Skills. JOURNAL OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING. 11 (2). pp-023-031. DOI:

Orgoványi-Gajdos, J. (2016). Teachers’ Professional Development on Problem Solving: Theory and Practice for Teachers and Teacher Educators. Sense Publishers, AW Rotterdam. Retrieved:

Perry, B.D. & Ablon, J.S. (2019). CPS as A Neurodevelopmentally Sensitive and Trauma-Informed Approach, In A. R. Pollastri et al. (eds.), Collaborative Problem Solving, Current Clinical Psychiatry, (pp. 15-31). Springer Nature Switzerland.

Reigeluth, C.M. & Squire, K. (1998). Emerging Work on the New Paradigm of Instructional Theories. Educational Technology. Indiana University. Pp. 41-47.

Reigeluth, C.M. (2012). Instructional Theory and Technology for the New Paradigm of Education. RED, Revista de Educación a Distancia. Número 32. 30 de septiembre de 2012. Consultado el (dd/mm/aaa) en

Rosen, M. A., Salas, E., Fiore, S. M., Pavlas, D., & Lum, H. C. (2009). Team Cognition and External Representations: A Framework and Propositions for Supporting Collaborative Problem Solving. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 53(18), 1295–1299. doi:10.1177/154193120905301828.

Rosen, Y. & Foltz, P.W. (2014). Assessing Collaborative Problem Solving Through Automated Technologies. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning. Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education. 9(3). pp. 389-410.

Setyosari, P. (2009). Desain Pembelajaran Kolaborasi: Landasan untuk mengembangnkan Keterampilan Sosial, Rasa Saling Menghargai, dan Tanggung Jawab. Depertemen Pendidikan Nasional, Universitas Negeri Malang.

Setyosari P. (2015) Educational and Development Research Methods (Metode Penelitian Pendidikan dan Pengembangan). Jakarta: Prenadamedia Group.

Song, Min H. Park, Jung A. Park, J. (2020) Measuring Collaborative Problem Solving Capability in Creative Problem Solving Situation. GROUP '20 Companion), ACM ISBN 978-1-4503-6767-7/20/01. DOI:

Susilowati, D., Degeng, I Nyoman S., Setyosari, P. & Ulfa, S. (2019) Effect of collaborative problem solving assisted by advance organisers and cognitive style on learning outcomes in computer programming. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. 17(1), pp. 35-41.

Stephenson, C. & Isaacs, T. (2019): The role of the Extended Project Qualification in developing self-regulated learners: exploring students’ and teachers’ experiences, The Curriculum Journal, pp. 1-30 DOI: 10.1080/09585176.2019.1646665.

Santoso, singgih. 2014. Statistik Parametrik Edisi Revisi. Jakarta : Elex Media Komputindo

Tarmizi, R.A. & Bayat, S. (2012). Collaborative problem-based learning in mathematics: A cognitive load perspective. Elsevier Ltd. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 (pp. 344 – 350). DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.01.051.

Tawfik, A. A., Kim, K., Hogan, M., & Msilu, F. (2018). How Success Versus Failure Cases Support Knowledge Construction in Collaborative Problem-Solving. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 073563311879975. doi:10.1177/0735633118799750.

Varela, J.J.M & Eva, G-G. (2016) The contribution of rubrics to the validity of performance assessment: a study of the conservation–restoration and design undergraduate degrees, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 41:2, 228-244, DOI: 10.1080/02602938.2014.998169

Wu, S-Y. (2019). Incorporation of Collaborative Problem Solving and Cognitive Tools to Improve Higher Cognitive Processing in Online Discussion Environments. Journal of Educational Computing Research 0(0) (pp.1-24). DOI: 10.1177/0735633119828044.

Wiltshire, T. J., Rosch, K., Fiorella, L., & Fiore, S. M. (2014). Training for Collaborative Problem Solving. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 58(1), 1154–1158. doi:10.1177/1541931214581241

Yang, H.-J., Yu, J.-C., & Wang, C-C. (2010). Social Interactions in Collaborative Problem-Solving in a Teaching Experiment Involving a Micro-Chip. International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, 47(3), 319–328. doi:10.7227/ijeee.47.3.7

Yin, K.Y., Abdullah, A.G.K., & Alazidiyeen, N.J. (2011). Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking. Canadian Center of Science and Education. 4(2) 58-62. DOI:10.5539/ies.v4n2p58.

Zakaria, Z., Setyosari, P., Sulton., & Kuswandi, D. (2019). The Effect of Art Based Learning to Improve Teaching Effectiveness in Pre-Service Teachers. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 7(3), 531-545. DOI:




How to Cite

Rofik, A. (2022). The effect of collaborative problem solving & collaborative project-based learning models to improve the project competences of pre-service teachers . Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 12(3), 130–143.