Lecturer Performance In Higher Education: Transformational Leadership, Knowledge Sharing, Change Adaptability and Its Relationship







Lecturer performance is the real behaviour displayed by a lecturer and as a work achievement that can be produced according to his role as an academic staff. The quality of graduates in higher education is related to the performance of lecturers in the fields of education, research, and community service. Improving lecturer performance requires the commitment of university leaders to make changes to the environment. This study aims to analyse the effect of transformational leadership on knowledge sharing and lecturer performance with moderation of change adaptability. The research was conducted at Universidade Nacional Timor Lorosa'e (UNTL) with a sample of 201 lecturers. The data that has been collected is analysed with descriptive and inferential analysis of Smart PLS.3. The results showed that transformational leadership has a significant effect on knowledge sharing and lecturer performance. Knowledge sharing has a significant effect on lecturer performance. It was also found that knowledge sharing partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and lecturer performance. Other findings show that change adaptability does not moderate the effect of transformational leadership on knowledge sharing. The implications of the research show that the limitations in making changes are due to difficulties in communicating between lecturers. Cultural factors, especially language, are the main barrier in change adaptability when conveying new ideas that are useful for institutional development.


Download data is not yet available.


Afsar, A, and Yuosre F. Badir, B. B. S. (2014). Transformational leadership and innovative work behavior. 114(8), 1270–1300. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-05-2014-0152

Akram, T., Lei, S., Haider, M. J., & Hussain, S. T. (2018). Exploring the Impact of Knowledge Sharing on the Innovative Work Behavior of Employees: A Study in China. International Business Research, 11(3), 186.

Alghazo, M. Ali, Al-Anazi, M. (2016). Impact of leadership style on employee ’ s motivation. International Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 2(5), 37–44.

Al-Kurdi, O., El-Haddadeh, R., & Eldabi, T. (2018). Knowledge sharing in higher education institutions: a systematic review. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 31(2), 226–246. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEIM-09-2017-0129

Al-Kurdi,O, Ramzi El-Haddadeh, T. E. (2017). Article information : Knowledge Sharing in Higher Education Institutions : A Systematic Review. Journal of Enterprise Information Management.

Al-Saffar, N. A., & Obeidat, A. M. (2020). The effect of total quality management practices on employee performance: The moderating role of knowledge sharing. Management Science Letters, 10(1), 77–90. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2019.8.014

Argyris, C. (2017). Integrating the Individual and the Organization. Routledge.

Argyris, C. (1978). Organizational Learning: A Theory Of Action Perspective. Massachusetts, USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

Asad, N., Hashmi, H. B. A., Nasir, M., Khalid, A., & Ahmad, A. (2021). Transformational Leadership Relationship with Employee Creativity: The Moderating Effect of Knowledge Sharing and Mediating Effect of Creative Self-Efficacy. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, (December), 1005–1029. https://doi.org/10.53333/ijicc2013/15913

Bandura, A. (1969). Banduras_theory.pdf. In Hanbook of Socialization Theory and Research (pp. 213–259). McNally, Ran & Company.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Learning Theory. In Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior (pp. 1–46). General Learning Press, New York City 10016.

Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1977). Social learning theory. (Vol. 1). Prentice Hall: Englewood cliffs.

Bass, B, M. (1990). From transactional to traformational leadership : learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 19–32. https://doi.org/10.1108/ICT-07-2013-0045

Bass, B, M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational Leadership (Second Edi). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410617095

Bircham-Connolly, H., Corner, J., & Bowden, S. (2005). An Empirical Study of the Impact of Question Structure on Recipient Attitude during Knowledge Sharing. Journal of Knowledge Management, 32(1), 1–10.

Brown, F. W., Bryant, S. E., & Reilly, M. D. (2006). Does emotional intelligence – as measured by the EQI – influence transformational leadership and/or desirable outcomes? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(5), 330–351. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730610677954

Brown, S. L., & Eisenhardt, K. M. (2003). The art of continuous change: Linking complexity theory and time-paced evolution in relentlessly shifting organizations. Organizational Improvisation, 42(1), 225–256. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203361603-18

Camps, J and Rodrigues, H. (2013). Transformational leadership , learning , and employability. Personnel Review, 40(4), 423–442. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483481111133327

Carvalho, N., & Gomes, I. (2017). Knowledge sharing between enterprises of the same group. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(1), 34–52. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJKM.2017010103

Chaubey, A., Sahoo, C. K., & Khatri, N. (2019). Relationship of transformational leadership with employee creativity and organizational innovation: A study of mediating and moderating influences. Journal of Strategy and Management, 12(1), 61–82. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-07-2018-0075

Collie, R. J., Granziera, H., & Martin, A. J. (2018). Teachers’ perceived autonomy support and adaptability: An investigation employing the job demands-resources model as relevant to workplace exhaustion, disengagement, and commitment. Teaching and Teacher Education, 74, 125–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.04.015

Cullen, K. L., Edwards, B. D., Casper, W. C., & Gue, K. R. (2014). Employees’ Adaptability and Perceptions of Change-Related Uncertainty: Implications for Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction, and Performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29(2), 269–280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-013-9312-y

Dappa, K., Bhatti, F., & Aljarah, A. (2019). A study on the effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction: The role of gender, perceived organizational politics and perceived organizational commitment. Management Science Letters, 9(6), 823–834. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2019.3.006

Din, N., & Haron, S. (2012). Knowledge Sharing as a Culture among Malaysian Online Social Networking Users. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 50(July), 1043–1050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.08.104

Dionne, S. D., Yammarino, F. J., Atwater, L. E., & Spangler, W. D. (2004). Transformational leadership and team performance. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2), 177–193. https://doi.org/10.1108/09534810410530601

Elgelal, K. S. K., & Noermijati. (2014). The Influences of Transformational Leaderships on Employees Performance (A Study of the Economics and Business Faculty Employee at University of Muhammadiyah Malang). Asia Pacific Management and Business Application, 3(1), 48–66. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.apmba.2014.003.01.4

Eliyana, A., Ma’arif, S., & Muzakki. (2019). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment effect in the transformational leadership towards employee performance. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 25(3), 144–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iedeen.2019.05.001

Fauza, H. (2020). The Correlation between Transformational Leadership Styles with Teacher’s Performance in SMP Negeri 2 Medan. Budapest International Research and Critics in Linguistics and Education (BirLE) Journal, 3(2), 1164–1169. https://doi.org/10.33258/birle.v3i2.1049

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

García-Morales, V. J., Jiménez-Barrionuevo, M. M., & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, L. (2012). Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 65(7), 1040–1050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.03.005

Huber, G. P. (1991). Organizational Learning: The Contributing Processes and the Literatures. Organization Science, 2(1), 88–115. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2.1.88

Hussain, Iftikhar, Anum Khan, Amber Qurashi, Q.-A. and A. S. (2015). The Impact of Knowledge Sharing Enablers on Employees’ Performance: An Empirical Study on READ Foundation in Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Journal of Information & Knowledge Management, 14(03), 1550020.

Kadarusman, K., & Bunyamin, B. (2021). The role of knowledge sharing, trust as mediation on servant leadership and job performance. Management Science Letters, 11, 1509–1520. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2020.12.022

Kang, Y., Kim, S., & Chang, G. (2014). The Impact of Knowledge Sharing on Work Performance : An Empirical Analysis of the Public Employees ’ Perceptions in South Korea. International Journal of Public Administration, (January 2008), 37–41.

Kim, S., & Ju, B. (2008). An analysis of faculty perceptions: Attitudes toward knowledge sharing and collaboration in an academic institution. Library and Information Science Research, 30(4), 282–290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2008.04.003

Kuzu, Ö. H., & Özilhan, D. (2014). The Effect of Employee Relationships and Knowledge Sharing on Employees’ Performance: An Empirical Research on Service Industry. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 109, 1370–1374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.639

Le, B. P., Lei Hui, & P., Sengphet, Than, S. T., Nguyen, T. M. A., & Gong, J. (2018). Self-efficacy and optimism mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and knowledge sharing. Social Behavior and Personality, 46(11), 1833–1846. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.7242

Le, P. B., & Lei, H. (2017). How Transformational Leadership Supports Knowledge Sharing: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing and Service Firms. Chinese Management Studies, 6(6), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1108/CMS-02-2017-0039

Le, P. B., & Lei, H. (2018). The mediating role of trust in stimulating the relationship between transformational leadership and knowledge sharing processes. Journal of Knowledge Management, 22(3), 521–537. https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-10-2016-0463

Lee, J. (2018). The Effects of Knowledge Sharing on Individual Creativity in Higher Education Institutions: Socio-Technical View. Administrative Sciences, 8(2), 21.

Lei, H., Nguyen, T. T., & Le, P. B. (2019). How knowledge sharing connects interpersonal trust and innovation capability: The moderating effect of leadership support. Chinese Management Studies, 13(2), 276–298. https://doi.org/10.1108/CMS-06-2018-0554

Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (1999). The Human Resource Architecture : Toward a Theory of Human Capital and Allocation Development. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 31–48.

Madugu, U., & Manaf, H. A. (2018). Academic Leadership and Knowledge Sharing in Nigerian Public Universities. American Research Journal of Humanities Social Science (ARJHSS), (03), 18–33.

Manurung, E. F. (2020). The Effects of Transformational Leadership, Competence and Compensation on Work Motivation and Implications on the Performance of Lecturers of Maritime College in DKI Jakarta. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 7(6), 112. https://doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v7i6.1741

Masa’deh, Ra’ed, Bader Yousef Obeidat, A. T. (2016). A Jordanian empirical study of the associations among transformational leadership , transactional leadership , knowledge sharing , job performance , and. Journal of Management Development, 35(5), 681–705. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-09-2015-0134

Meher, J. R., & Mishra, R. K. (2021). Examining the role of knowledge sharing on employee performance with a mediating effect of organizational learning. VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, (March). https://doi.org/10.1108/VJIKMS-04-2020-0056

Muharlisiani, L. (2020). The Impact Of Transformational Leadership On Lecturer Performance: A Quantitative Study. PJAEE, 17(6), 13841–13858.

Naeem, S., & Khanzada, B. (2018). Role of Transformational Leadership in Employee’s Performance with Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction in Health Sector of Pakistan. Journal of Health Education Research & Development, 06(01), 1–6.

Na-Nan, K., Saribut, S., & Sanamthong, E. (2019). Mediating effects of perceived environment support and knowledge sharing between self-efficacy and job performance of SME employees. Industrial and Commercial Training, 51(6), 342–359. https://doi.org/10.1108/ICT-01-2019-0009

Neil E. Fassina, D. A. J. A. K. L. U. (2008). Meta-analytic tests of relationships between organizational justice and citizenship behavior: testing agent-system and shared-variance models. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 805–828. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.494

Nelson, D. R., Adger, W. N., & Brown, K. (2007). Adaptation to Environmental Change: Contributions of a Resilience Framework. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 32(1), 395–419. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.32.051807.090348

Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2010). Theories of human development. Psychology Press.

Nordin, N. A., Daud, N., & Osman, W. U. K. M. (2012). Knowledge sharing behaviour among academic staff at a public higher education institution in Malaysia: How willing are they? International Journal of Educational and Pedagogical Sciences, 6(2), 3415–342.

Nugroho, B. S., Suheri, Hakim, L., Irawan, B., Sholehuddin, M. S., Ibrahim, T., … Fahlevi, M. (2020). Effect of Knowledge Sharing and Leader member Exchange (LMX) and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) to Indonesian Lectures’ Performance. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11(9), 972–981.

Phong, L. B., & Son, T. T. (2020). The Link between Transformational Leadership and Knowledge Sharing: Mediating Role of Distributive, Procedural and Interactional Justice. Journal of Information and Knowledge Management, 19(3). https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219649220500203

Phong, L. B., & Thanh, L. T. (2023). Transformational Leadership and Innovation Capability: Roles of Knowledge-centered Culture and Knowledge Sharing. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 10(1), 111-121.

Pongpearchan, P. (2016). Effect of transformational leadership and high performance work system on job motivation and task performance: Empirical evidence from business schools of Thailand universities. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research, 10(3), 93–105.

Raja, A. S., & Palanichamy, P. (2011). Leadership Styles and its Impact on Organizational Commitment. Asia Pacific Business Review, 7(3), 167–175. https://doi.org/10.1177/097324701100700315

Schon, D., & Senge, P. (1999). The Learning Organization. Infed-Encyclopedia.

Schulze, J. H., & Pinkow, F. (2020). Leadership for Organisational Adaptability: How Enabling Leaders Create Adaptive Space. Administrative Sciences, 10(3), 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10030037

Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods For Business. Metode Penelitian Untuk Bisnis. (Fourth Edi). (Kwan Men Yon, Pentj). Jakarta: Salemba Empat.

Siajaya, S. D. (2014). Analisis Dampak Transformational Leadership Terhadap Financial Performance Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur di Surabaya. In Business Accounting Review (pp. 218–227).

Sihombing, M. (2020). The Effect of Transformational Leadership, Work Discipline, and Satisdaction on Lecturers’ Performance at the Tarbiyah and Teaching Faculty of UIN Antasari Banjarmasin. Journal of K6 Education and Management, 3(2), 100–108. https://doi.org/10.11594/jk6em.03.02.01

Smit, J. (2015). The Innovation Value Chain and Adaptability of Organizations. Journal of International Technology and Information Management, 24(3), 57–74.

Son, T. T., Phong, L. B., & Loan, B. T. T. (2020). Transformational Leadership and Knowledge Sharing: Determinants of Firm’s Operational and Financial Performance. SAGE Open, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020927426

Srivastava, A., & Pinto, J. (2022). Dynamic linkages of empowering and transformational leadership with knowledge sharing in project teams. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 20(4), 571-579.

Stern, C. W., & Deimler, M. S. (2006). The Boston consulting group on strategy: Classic concepts and new perspectives. John Wiley & Sons.

Swanson, Eric, Kim Sally, Lee Sae Mi, Yang Jae Jang, Lee, Y. K. (2020). The effect of leader competencies on knowledge sharing and job performance: Social capital theory. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 42(September 2019), 88–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2019.11.004

Teece, D. J. (2012). Dynamic Capabilities: Routines versus Entrepreneurial Action. Journal of Management Studies, 49(8), 1395–1401. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2012.01080.x

Terry Kim, T., Lee, G., Paek, S., & Lee, S. (2013). Social capital, knowledge sharing and organizational performance. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(5), 683–704. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-jan-2012-0010

Torlak, N. G., & Kuzey, C. (2019). Leadership, job satisfaction and performance links in private education institutes of Pakistan. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 68(2), 276–295. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-05-2018-0182

Trmal, S. A. (2017). The Process of Transformational Leadership in Achieving High Performance Workforce that Exceeds Organisational Expectations : A Phenomenological Case Study. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(3), 73–84.

Uhl-Bien, M., & Arena, M. (2018). Leadership for organizational adaptability: A theoretical synthesis and integrative framework. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(1), 89–104.

Wainaina, C. N. (2014). Determinants of Employee Adaptability to Transformational Change in Commercial in Nairobi , Kenya : Empirical Review. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(10), 1–9.

William R. King. (2012). Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814271233_0008

Wiltbank, R., Dew, N., Read, S., & Sarasvathy, S. D. (2006). What to do next? The case for non-predictive strategy. Strategic Management Journal, 27(10), 981–998. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.555

Wong, K. K.-K. (2013). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) Techniques Using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24(1), 1–32.

Yeşil, S., & Hırlak, B. (2013). An Empirical Investigation into the Influence of Knowledge Sharing Barriers on Knowledge Sharing and Individual Innovation Behaviour. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(2), 38–61. https://doi.org/10.4018/jkm.2013040103

Zhang, C., Li, S., Liu, X., & Wang, X. (2023). Transformational leadership and supply chain innovativeness: mediating role of knowledge sharing climate and moderating role of supply base rationalization. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, (ahead-of-print).

Żywiołek, J., Tucmeanu, E. R., Tucmeanu, A. I., Isac, N., & Yousaf, Z. (2022). Nexus of transformational leadership, employee adaptiveness, knowledge sharing, and employee creativity. Sustainability, 14(18), 11607.




How to Cite

Sarmento, A., & Riana, I. G. (2023). Lecturer Performance In Higher Education: Transformational Leadership, Knowledge Sharing, Change Adaptability and Its Relationship. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 14(1), 261–269. https://doi.org/10.47750/pegegog.14.01.29