Characterizing Indonesian EFL teachers’ questioning as informal formative assessment strategy


  • Milawati Milawati Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Ali Saukah
  • Suharmanto Suharmanto
  • Nunung Suryati


EFL Teachers’ questioning, formative assessment, informal formative assessment, ESRU sequence, Indonesian context


A formative assessment has been a mushrooming issue in language education. However, challenges in providing an effective formative assessment in the EFL context remain uncovered at higher education levels. By giving attention to informal formative assessment practices, teachers are expected to minimalize the inadequate knowledge of formative assessment. ESRU sequence was used to illustrate every single steps to diagnose students’ actual knowledge and gap found. Five EFL teachers and their classess were involved. The data were collected through classroom observation and interview. The result revealed that teachers with complete ESRU sequences tend to use questioning technique more effectively as an informal formative assessment. The more complete ESRU sequences they practiced, the more information they collected to provide appropriate feedback to students. Besides, teachers’ strategy in making use of information gathered was worthnoting to enhance students’ learning. Hence this study can contribute as a continuum base of formal formative assessment to construct better learning instruction as well as consideration for decision and policy making in EFL higher education context.


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How to Cite

Milawati, M., Saukah, A., Suharmanto, S., & Suryati, N. (2021). Characterizing Indonesian EFL teachers’ questioning as informal formative assessment strategy. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 11(3), 112–124. Retrieved from