The Correlation of Speaking Self-Efficacy, Speaking Proficiency and Gender in ESP Context




self-efficacy, speaking, gender, ESP


Self-efficacy in language learning have been attracting interest recently. The construct is said to be a reliable predictor of language performance. This study is aimed at explaining the relationship of self-efficacy and speaking proficiency of male and females. It was administered to investigate whether self-efficacy correlates to speaking proficiency. In addition, the study seeks answer regarding the difference of self-efficacy and speaking proficiency of male and female students who were taking ESP. The study was a quantitative research with ex-post facto design. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and t-test were used to analyze the data collected from 92 subjects who were Diploma IV students. There were 17 females and 75 male students that were selected based on purposive sampling technique. The result of analysis presented that self-efficacy had significant correlation with speaking proficiency. on the other hand, self-efficacy of males and females were not significantly difference. The score of self-efficacy between males and females were only slightly different and categorized as medium. Furthermore, gender did not influence speaking as both males and females had medium level speaking proficiency. it can be wrapped up that self-efficacy predicts speaking proficiency, nevertheless gender does not link to self-efficacy and speaking.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Punaji Setyosari, Universitas Negeri Malang

Punaji Setyosari (Prof. State University of Malang) is Professor at the Department of Education Technology, State University of Malang, Indonesia. His areas of interest include Developing Instructional Model, Curriculum Development, TPACK, and Instructional Strategy based on Technology. [email protected] . Scopus ID: 57191276640

Henry Praherdhiono, Universitas Negeri Malang

Henry Praherdhiono (Ph. D/State University of Malang) is a lecturer in the Department of Education Technology, State University of Malang, Indonesia. His areas of interest include The Integration of Technology in Teaching and Learning and Digital Learning. [email protected] . Scopus ID: 57208598465

Nunung Suryati, Universitas Negeri Malang

Nunung Suryati (Ph. D/State University of Malang) is a lecturer in the Department of English Education, State University of Malang, Indonesia. Her areas of interest include English Language Teaching. [email protected] . Scopus ID: 56471947300


Abdorahimzadeh, S. (2014). Gender differences and EFL reading comprehension: Revisiting topic interest and test performance. System, 42(1), 70–80.

Afifah, F. N. (2019). Students ’ Self-Efficacy In Learning English (Issue September, pp. 0–9).

Agustiani, H., Cahyad, S., & Musa, M. (2016). Self-efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning as Predictors of Students Academic Performance. The Open Psychology Journal, 9(1), 1–6.

Ahmad, A. et. a. (2013). Effects of Self-Efficacy on Students’ Academic Performance. Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology, 2(1), 22–29.

Anyadubalu, C. C. (2010). Self Efficacy, Anxiety and Performance in the English Language among Middle-School Students in English Language Program in Satri Si Suriyothai School, Bangkok. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 39, 1043–1048.

Ariyanti, A. (2016). Psychological Factors Affecting EFL Students’ Speaking Performance. ASIAN TEFL Journal of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 1(1).

Bailey, K. . (2005). Practical English Language Teaching: Speaking (1st Editio). McGraw-Hill.

Bandura, A. (1977). Bandura A. Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.

Bandura, Albert. (1997). Self-Efficacy The Exercise of Control. WH Freeman and Company.

Bandura, Albert (1997). Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies. Cambridge University Press.

Bao, Y., & Liu, S. (2021). The Influence of Affective Factors in Second Language Acquisition on Foreign Language Teaching. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 09(03), 463–470.

Buckingham, L., & Alpaslan, R. S. (2017). Promoting speaking proficiency and willingness to communicate in Turkish young learners of English through asynchronous computer-mediated practice. System, 65, 25–37.

Cahyono, B.Y;, & Widiati, U. (2006). The Teaching of Speaking in the Indonesian Context: The State of The Art. Bahasa Dan Seni, 34(2), 4.

Cahyono, Bambang Yudi, & Rahayu, T. (2020). EFL Students’ Motivation in Writing, Writing Proficiency, and Gender. Teflin Journal, 31(2), 162–180.

Canaran, Ö., Bayram, İ., Doğan, M., & Baturay, M. H. (2020). Causal Relationship Among the Sources of Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and Proficiency in L2 Listening. International Journal of Listening, 1–13.

Emilia, E., Moecharam, N. Y., & Syifa, I. L. (2017). Gender in EFL classroom: Transitivity analysis in English textbook for Indonesian students. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7(1), 206–214.

Erdiana, N., Bahri, S., & Akhmal, C. N. (2019). Male vs. female EFL students: Who is better in speaking skill? Studies in English Language and Education, 6(1), 131–140.

Fitri, D. R. et. al. (2019). The Correlation between Reading Self-Efficacy and Reading Comprehension. Journal of English Education and Teaching, 26(3), 1–4.

Flammer, A. (2018). Self-Efficacy. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Issue December 2001).

Genç, G., Kuluşakli, E., & Aydin, S. (2016). Exploring Prospective EFL Teachers’ Perceived Self-Efficacy and Beliefs on English Language Learning. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(2), 53–68.

Główka, D. (2014). The Impact of Gender on Attainment in Learning English as a Foreign Language. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4(4), 617–635.

Hayat, A. A., Shateri, K., Amini, M., & Shokrpour, N. (2020). Relationships between Academic Self-Efficacy, Learning-Related Emotions, and Metacognitive Learning Strategies with Academic Performance in Medical Students: A Structural Equation Model. BMC Medical Education, 20(1), 1–11.

Hobbs, P. (2003). The Medium is the Message: Politeness Strategies in Men’s and Women’s Voice Mail Messages. Journal of Pragmatics, 35, 243–262.

Huang, J. (2021). Differences in the Performance of Female and Male Students: A Case Study of Second Language Learning. Proceedings of the 2021 International Conference on Education, Language and Art (ICELA 2021), 637(Icela 2021), 502–505.

Illyin, I., Hanifah, G. N., & Yunianti, S. (2019). The Affective Factors Influencing Students’ Speaking Ability. UAD TEFL International Conference, 2, 146.

Kassem, M. A. M. (2018). Improving EFL Students’ Speaking Proficiency and Motivation: A Hybrid Problem-based Learning Approach. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 8(7), 848.

Köseoglu, Y. (2015). Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement – A Case From Turkey. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(29), 131–141.

Leeming, P. (2017). A Longitudinal Investigation into English Speaking Self-Efficacy in a Japanese Language Classroom. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 2(1).

Leong, L.-M., & Ahmadi, S. M. (2017). An Analysis of Factors Influencing Learners’ English Speaking Skill. International Journal of Research in English Education, 2(1), 34–41.

Los, R. E. B. (2014). The Effects of Self-Regulation and Self-Efficacy on Academic Outcome [University of South Dakota]. In ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (Issue May).




Manurung, K. (2015). Improving the Speaking Skill Using Reading Contextual Internet-based Instructional Materials in an EFL Class in Indonesia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 176, 44–51.

Meera, K. P., & Jumana, M. K. (2015). Self-Efficacy and Academic Performance in English. Research in Pedagogy, 5(2), 25–30.

Musa, M. (2020). Academic Self-Efficacy and Academic Performance among University Undergraduate Students: An Antecedent to Academic Success. European Journal of Education Studies, 7(3), 135–149.

Namaziandost, E., Abedi, P., & Nasri, M. (2019). The Role of Gender in the Accuracy and Fluency of Iranian Upper-intermediate EFL Learners’ L2 Oral Productions. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 6(3), 1–14.

Ni, H. (2012). The Effects of Affective Factors in SLA and Pedagogical Implications. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(7), 1508–1513.

Nurfitria. (2017). Speaking Competence Based on Gender toward Fifth Semester Students of English Education Study Programme at IAIN Palangkaray. IAIN Palangkaraya.

Panggabean, E. (2018). Factors Affecting Students ’ Speaking Performance At Smk Bukit Cahaya Sidikalang. Majalah Ilmiah Politeknik Mandiri Bina Prestasi, 2, 61–69.

Porte, G. K. (2002). Appraising Research in Second Language Learning: a practical approach to critical analysis of quantitative research. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Putra, I. D. G. R. D. et. al. (2020). The Predicting Power of Self Efficacy on Students’ Argumentative Writing Quality. Journal of Asia TEFL, 17(2), 379–394.

Rahil Bin Mahyuddin, E. a. (2006). The Relationship Between Students ’ Self Efficacy And Their English Language Achievement. Jurnal Pendidik Dan Pendidikan, Jil.21(1996), 61–71.

Raoofi, S., Tan, B. H., & Chan, S. H. (2012). Self-Efficacy in Second/Foreign Language Learning Contexts. English Language Teaching, 5(11), 60–73.

Rokhman, N. M., Latief, M. A., & Suryati, N. (2021). Learners ’ Anxiety , Self -Efficacy , and Personality as Predictors of Learners ’ Speaking Performance. Jurnal Pendidikan, 6(1), 103–108.

Sadi O, U. M. (2013). The Relationship Between Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies And Achievement: A Path Model. Baltic Science Edu, 12(1), 21–33.

Saldaria, E., Ariawan, V. A. N., & Cahyani, I. (2019). Speaking Skill of Elementary Students Reviewed by Gender. Jurnal Prima Edukasia, 7(1), 20–27.

Sartika, S., & Amin, M. (2014). What Contributes to Students’ Success in Learning to Speak English. JEELS, 1(1), 31–45.

Shin, M.-H. (2018). Effects of Project-based Learning on Students’ Motivation and Self-efficacy. English Teaching, 73(1), 95–115.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Mcmaster, P. (2009). Sources of Self-Efficacy : Four Professional Development Formats and Their Relationship to Self-Efficacy and Implementation of a New Teaching Strategy. The Elementary School Journal, 110(2), 228–245.

Wahyuningsih, S. (2018). Men and Women Differences in Using Language: A Case Study of Students at Stain Kudus. Edulite, 3(1), 79–90.

Wang, C., & Sun, T. (2020). Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Language Proficiency: A Meta-Analysis. System, 95.




How to Cite

Hoesny, M. U., Setyosari, P. ., Praherdhiono, H., & Suryati, N. (2023). The Correlation of Speaking Self-Efficacy, Speaking Proficiency and Gender in ESP Context. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 13(2), 191–199.