Autonomous learning activities: The perceptions of English language students in Indonesia

Authors

  • Khulaifiyah Khulaifiyah Universitas Islam Riau
  • Utami Widati
  • Mirjam Anugerahwati
  • Nunung Suryati

Keywords:

Autonomous learning, Evaluating, Initiating, Monitoring, Students' Perception

Abstract

Autonomous learning is a process to be aware of taking control of learning. This study aims to explore students' perceptions of autonomous learning and students’ proposed activities during the initiative, monitoring, and evaluation process in raising autonomous learning in the teaching-learning process since little attention is directed to exploring English language students’ perceptions of autonomous learning. This study used a case study and a content analysis in the qualitative research method. Data collected through structured interviews (10-15 minutes) through randomly selected respondents from the fifth semester in an English department of a private university in Pekanbaru Indonesia. The finding indicates that the students perceive autonomous learning as fully independent learning which is a learning situation with their own target, style, and strategies without teachers' assistance or without interference from outside parties or anywhere else. In the initiative stage, the students proposed eleven activities namely assignments, have course outline, get innovative and creative tasks, and motivation. Meanwhile, eleven activities proposed during the monitoring process namely assignments, checking their understanding, interaction, direction, feedback, challenging work, reward, and punishment. In the last stage, they proposed to have an innovative project, regular measurements, assignment, motivation, doing negotiation, and publish. Getting assignments is the proposed activity in all processes of learning indeed. This study concludes with suggestions that students' metacognitive knowledge about autonomous learning needs to be improved since it enhances students’ competency and learning autonomy, primarily in monitoring and evaluating stage.

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Aguirre Sánchez, I. (2014). Exploring Pre-Service EFL Teachers’ Beliefs About Their Roles in an Elementary School Classroom in Regard to Pedagogical and Emotional Aspects of Students. How, 21(1), 26–41. https://doi.org/10.19183/how.21.1.13

Al-Busaidi, S. S. A.-B. S., & Al-Maamari, F. S. (2014). Exploring University Teachers’ Understanding of Learner Autonomy. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(10), 2051–2060. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.4.10.2051-2060

Arshiyan, P., & Pishkar, K. (2015a). A Survey of the Lecturers’ Perception about EFL Azad University Students’ Autonomy versus Actual Level of Autonomy. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(11), 2277. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0511.11

Arshiyan, P., & Pishkar, K. (2015b). A Survey of the Lecturers’ Perception about EFL Azad University Students’ Autonomy versus Actual Level of Autonomy. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(11), 2277. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0511.11

Asiri Jameelah, S. N. (2020). Preparatory Learners’ Perspectives of Learner Autonomy in the Saudi Context. Arab World English Journal, 11(2), 94–113. https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol11no2.8

Bajrami, L. (2015). Teacher’s New Role in Language Learning and in Promoting Learner Autonomy. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 199, 423–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.528

Benson, P. (2006). Autonomy in Language Learning. 1–114.

Benson, Phil. (2007). Autonomy in language teaching and learning. Language Teaching, 40(1), 21–40. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444806003958

Benson, Phil. (2012). Autonomy in language learning, learning, and life. Synergies France, 1, 29–39.

Benson, Phil. (2013a). Learner autonomy. TESOL Quarterly, 47(4), 839–843. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.134

Benson, Phil. (2013b). Learner autonomy. TESOL Quarterly, 47(4), 839–843. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.134

Borg, S., & Alshumaimeri, Y. (2019). Language learner autonomy in a tertiary context: Teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language Teaching Research, 23(1), 9–38. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168817725759

Boscardin, C. K., Aguirre-Muñoz, Z., Stoker, G., Jinok Kim, M. K., & Lee, J. (2005). Relationship between opportunity to learn and student performance on english and algebra assessments. Educational Assessment, 10(4), 307–332. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326977ea1004_1

Cakici, D. (2017). An Investigation of Learner Autonomy in Turkish EFL Context. International Journal of Higher Education, 6(2), 89. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v6n2p89

Cho, M. H., Kim, Y., & Choi, D. H. (2017). The effect of self-regulated learning on college students’ perceptions of community of inquiry and affective outcomes in online learning. Internet and Higher Education, 34, 10–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2017.04.001

Dang, T. T. (2012). Learner Autonomy Perception and Performance: A Study on Vietnamese Students.

Ellett, C. D., Teddlie, C., Saleem, F., Naseem, Z., Ibrahim, K., Hussain, A., Azeem, M., Keith Morrison, Hopkins, D., Reynolds, D., Muijs, D., Reynolds, D., Sammons, P., De Fraine, B., Van Damme, J., Townsend, T., Teddlie, C., Stringfield, S., Scheerens, J., … Creemer, B. P. M. (2013). Educational effectiveness research (EER): A state-of-the-art review. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 24(1), 1–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/09243453.2012.691100

Gardner, D. (2011). Fostering Autonomy in Language Learning Edited by. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.2654.8886

Govender, S., & Ajani, O. A. (2021). Monitoring and Evaluation of Teacher Professional Development for Resourceful Classroom Practices. 9(4), 870–879. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2021.090421

Guo, Y. (2018). The Influence of Academic Autonomous Motivation on Learning Engagement and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction. Journal of Education and Learning, 7(4), 254. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v7n4p254

Hafner, C. A., & Miller, L. (2011a). Hafnermiller. 15(3), 68–86.

Hafner, C. A., & Miller, L. (2011b). Hafnermiller. 15(3), 68–86.

Holúbeková, A., Fördösová, M., & Klimentová, K. (2016). Some remarks on learner autonomy in Esp classes. 598–606. https://doi.org/10.15414/isd2016.s8.04

Hong, K.-S., & Songan, P. (2011). ICT in the changing landscape of higher education in Southeast Asia. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(8).

Horváthová, B. (2016). Development of learner autonomy. How to Teach in Higher Education: Selected Chapters, 120–136.

Humphreys, G., & Wyatt, M. (2014). Helping Vietnamese university learners to become more autonomous. ELT Journal, 68(1), 52–63. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/cct056

Issa, H. B., & Khataibeh, A. (n.d.). The Effect of Using Project Based Learning on Improving the Critical Thinking among Upper Basic Students from Teachers’ Perspectives. 11(25), 6. https://doi.org/10.14527/pegegog.2021.00

Kartowagiran, B., Wibawa, E. A., Alfarisa, F., & Purnama, D. N. (2019). Can student assessment sheets replace observation sheets? Cakrawala Pendidikan, 38(1), 33–44. https://doi.org/10.21831/cp.v38i1.22207

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2005). Understanding language teaching: From method to postmethod. Understanding Language Teaching: From Method to Postmethod, 8(January), 1–258. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410615725

Lamb, M. (2004). “It Depends on the Students Themselves”: Independent Language Learning at an Indonesian State School.

Lee, L. (2016). Autonomous learning through task-based instruction in fully online language courses. Language Learning & Technology, 20(2), 81–97.

Lengkanawati, N. S. (2017). Learner autonomy in the indonesian efl settings. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v6i2.4847

Little, D. (2007). Language Learner Autonomy: Some Fundamental Considerations Revisited. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 14–29. https://doi.org/10.2167/illt040.0

Little, D., & Dam, L. (1998). Learner autonomy: What and Why? Language Teacher-Kyoto-Jalt, 7–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571739785200251

Litzler, M. F. (2014). Independent Study Logs: Guiding and Encouraging Students in the Process of Language Learning. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5(5), 994–998. https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.5.5.994-998

Nguyen, N. T. (2012). “Let students take control!” Fostering learner autonomy in language learning: An experiment. International Conference on Education and Management Innovation, 30, 318 – 320. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444806003958

Nunan, D. (1980). Nine steps to learner autonomy. Symposiom 2003, 193–204.

Pennington, M. C., & Richards, J. C. (2015). Teacher Identity in Language Teaching: Integrating Personal, Contextual, and Professional Factors. RELC Journal, 47(1), 5–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688216631219

Phan, T. T. T. (2015). Towards a potential model to enhance language learner autonomy in the Vietnamese higher education context. March.

Project, U., To, W., Learner, F., & Study, A. C. (2018). Using Project Work To Foster Learner Autonomy. HNUE Journal of Science, 63(5A), 1–12.

Reeve, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Assor, A., Ahmad, I., Cheon, S. H., Jang, H., Kaplan, H., Moss, J. D., Olaussen, B. S., & Wang, C. K. J. (2014). The beliefs that underlie autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching: A multinational investigation. Motivation and Emotion, 38(1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-013-9367-0

Reinders, H., & Balcikanli, C. (2011). Learning to Foster Autonomy: The Role of Teacher Education Materials. Studies In Self-Access Learning Journal, 2, 15–25.

Samsudin, A., Musthafa, B., & Sunendar, D. (2020). Improving Self Independence and Adjustment-based Students’ Language Competence through Self Access Center. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(12), 6473–6481. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.081212

Scherly, D., Roux, L., & Dillenbourg, P. (n.d.). Evaluation of the effectiveness and use of an autonomous or integrated hypertext in an activity learning environment. Tecfa.Unige.Ch. http://tecfa.unige.ch/tecfa/publicat/dil-papers-2/Dil.7.2.13.pdf

Vafaeimehr, R., & Baleghizadeh, S. (2020). EFL Learners’ Perceptions and Practices of Reflective Assessment and Its’ Impact on Their General English Achievements. Language Related Research, 11(3), 347–377.

Wang, J. (2010). How to Develop College Students’ Autonomous English Learning Skills—Take Reading Course in Joint-Program in HCFT as An Example. English Language Teaching, 3(3), 221–228. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v3n3p221

Widiati, U. (2008). Pembelajaran Membaca-Menulis Terpadu Melalui Buddy Journals untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Menulis Mahasiswa Jurusan Sastra Inggris dalam BAHASA DAN SENI. Jurnal Bahasa dan Seni,. Jurnal Bahasa Dan Seni, 36(2), 94–105.

Yunus, M. M., & Arshad, N. D. M. (2015). ESL teachers’ perceptions toward the practices and prospects of autonomous language learning. Asian Social Science, 11(2), 41–51. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v11n2p41

Downloads

Published

2021-07-01

How to Cite

Khulaifiyah, K., Widati, U., Anugerahwati, M., & Suryati, N. (2021). Autonomous learning activities: The perceptions of English language students in Indonesia. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 11(3), 34–49. Retrieved from https://pegegog.net/index.php/pegegog/article/view/1362