Online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic period: Studies on the social presence and affective and cognitive engagement of students


  • Mahyudin Ritonga Muhammadiyah University of West Sumatera
  • Ahmad Lahmi Muhammadiyah University of West Sumatera
  • Riki Saputra Muhammadiyah University of West Sumatera
  • Mursal Muhammadiyah University of West Sumatera
  • Nofrizaldi MAN Insan Cendikia Padang Pariaman



online learning; social presence; Affective engagement; cognitive involvement


The fact that an educational institution is closed temporarily as one of the government's efforts and participation of education to withstand the pace of the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic. In line with that learning is diverted from the face-to-face system to online learning, in reality online learning the social presence of learners not as expected, on the other hand, learners who are usually active on offline learning both from affective and cognitive aspects are invisible to online learning. The research findings are learners who have an active social presence showing high affective and cognitive involvement in the study online, while students whose sociability passive involvement indicates that they do not engage both affective and cognitive studies during their studies. Researchers have concluded that students who are social and active in affective and cognitive involvement in offline learning do not guarantee the same conditions found online learning.


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How to Cite

Ritonga, M., Lahmi, A., Saputra, R., Mursal, & Nofrizaldi, N. (2022). Online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic period: Studies on the social presence and affective and cognitive engagement of students. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 12(1), 207–212.




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