Enhancing flipped classroom with peer teaching to promote students’ conceptual understanding and self-efficacy in calculus courses
Keywords:Calculus, Conventional Flipped Classroom, Peer Teaching Flipped Classroom, Conceptual Understanding Self-Efficacy
Calculus differential is the basis of mathematics before entering the level of further mathematics, which has a high analysis level. Students have difficulty understanding concepts and have not been able to analyze/predict/realize (self-efficacy) that impact challenges in working on calculus problems. On the other hand, technology has been developed in education. It is offered as a solution to the issues, namely peer teaching flipped classrooms. This learning model is a technology-based approach to student centre learning. This research compared conventional flipped classrooms and peer teaching flipped classrooms. This research investigated the differences in students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy in both classes in terms of majors’ background and prior achievement level. This research used a nonequivalent-group pretest and posttest design using flipped classroom method. The type of data in the study was quantitative, namely test and questionnaire. The ANCOVA results showed that the peer teaching flipped method was better than the conventional flipped classroom method in terms of students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Moreover, self-efficacy had a positive correlation with conceptual understanding in both methods. Furthermore, the student's prior achievement level influenced students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy, while students' major's background influenced students' self-efficacy only
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