The influence of interactive digital worksheets based on level of inquiry towards science process skills in elementary school




interactive digital worksheets, science process skills, elementary school


The challenge of learning science during the COVID-19 pandemic in elementary schools focuses on the need for digital learning materials for Science Process Skills (SPS) through the perspective of science as an investigation process. This study aims to investigate the influence of interactive digital worksheets based on level of inquiry towards science process skills during the covid-19 pandemic in elementary school. This study uses quasi-experiments research with pretest-posttest control groups design. The sample used was 124 fifth grade elementary school students. Data collection uses the SPS test through measurement indicators of observation, classifying, communication, measuring, inference, and prediction aspects. Data analysis using independent sample t-test after going through the assumption test of normality, homogeneity and balance. The results of calculating the hypothesis test obtained p = 0.000 at a significance level of 5% indicating that there is a difference between IDW and student SPS. The effect size test was obtained by a percentage of 66.18% so that it can be concluded that the use of IDW based on LoI can effectively increase SPS in elementary school students. Interactive facilities and ease of access as well as the suitability of work stages based on the LoI contribute to student independence and stimulate student SPS in elementary schools during learning during the pandemic.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

St Y Slamet, Universitas Sebelas Maret

Teacher Training and Education Faculty

Idam Ragil Widianto Atmojo, Universitas Sebelas Maret

Teacher Training and Education Faculty

Ahmad Syawaludin, Universitas Sebelas Maret

Teacher Training and Education Faculty


Ahdhianto, E., & Santi, N. N. (2020). The effect of metacognitive-based contextual learning model on fifth-grade students' problem-solving and mathematical communication skills. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(2), 753-764.

Al Mamun, M. A., Lawrie, G., & Wright, T. (2020). Instructional design of scaffolded online learning modules for self-directed and inquiry-based learning environments. Computers & Education, 144, 103695.

Aliman, M., & Mutia, T. (2021). The effect of digital eco-learning in student worksheet flipbook to environmental project literacy and pedagogic competency. JOTSE: Journal of Technology and Science Education, 11(2), 357-370.

Atmojo, I. R. W., Sajidan, S., Sunarno, W., & Ashadi, A. (2017). Profil Kemampuan Menganalisis Model Pembelajaran Level Of Inquiry untuk Membelajarkan Materi IPA Berbasis Hots pada Calon Guru Sekolah Dasar. In Prosiding SNPS (Seminar Nasional Pendidikan Sains) (pp. 162-166).

Aydogdu, M. Z., & Keşan, C. (2018). A research on geometry problem solving strategies used by elementary mathematics teacher candidates. Engineering Sciences & Technologies/Nauki Inzynierskie i Technologie, 4(1).

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education (6th ed.). London, New York: Routllege Falmer.

Constantine, A., & Jung, K. G. (2019). Using digital science notebooks to support elementary student learning: Lessons and perspectives from a fifth-grade science classroom. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 19(3), 373-412.

Cook, T. D. (2015). Quasi‐experimental design. Wiley encyclopedia of management, 1-2.

Darmaji, D., Kurniawan, D. A., Astalini, A., Winda, F. R., Heldalia, H., & Kartina, L. (2020). The correlation between student perceptions of the use of e-modules with students' basic science process skills. JPI (Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia), 9(4), 719-729.

Dhawan, S. (2020). Online learning: A panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis. Journal of educational technology systems, 49(1), 5-22.

Dockendorff, M., & Solar, H. (2018). ICT integration in mathematics initial teacher training and its impact on visualization: the case of GeoGebra. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 49(1), 66-84.

Garza, E., & Cavazos, L. (2020). Shifting to an outdoor learning space: Embracing nature to support science process skills for english learners. Journal of the World Federation of Associations of Teacher Education, 3(3), 32-49.

Hacıoglu, Y., & Donmez Usta, N. (2020). Digital game design-based STEM activity: Biodiversity example. Science Activities, 57(1), 1-15.

Handayani, T., & Utami, N. (2020). The effectiveness of hybrid learning in character building of integrated islamic elementary school students during the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Educational Science and Technology (EST), 6(3), 276-283.

Handel, M., Stephan, M., Gläser-Zikuda, M., Kopp, B., Bedenlier, S., & Ziegler, A. (2020). Digital readiness and its effects on higher education students’ socio-emotional perceptions in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 1-13.

Harlen, W. (1999). Purposes and procedures for assessing science process skills. Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice, 6(1), 129-144.

Hodges, T. S., Kerch, C., & Fowler, M. (2020). Teacher Education in the time of Covid-19: Creating digital networks as university-school-family partnerships. Middle Grades Review, 6(2), n2.

Ichsan, I. Z., Rahmayanti, H., Purwanto, A., Sigit, D. V., Singh, C. K. S., & Babu, R. U. M. (2020). HOTS-AEP-COVID-19: Students knowledge and digital worksheet of ILMIZI environmental learning model. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(6), 5231-5241.

Indriani, D., & Mercuriani, I. S. (2019). Experiential learning model with mind mapping on fungi: how to improve science process skills?. Biosfer: Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi, 12(2), 223-237.

Jerrim, J., Oliver, M., & Sims, S. (2020). The relationship between inquiry-based teaching and students’ achievement. New evidence from a longitudinal PISA study in England. Learning and Instruction, 101310.

Jia, X., Willard, J., Karpatne, A., Read, J. S., Zwart, J. A., Steinbach, M., & Kumar, V. (2021). Physics-guided machine learning for scientific discovery: An application in simulating lake temperature profiles. ACM/IMS Transactions on Data Science, 2(3), 1-26.

Kamble, A., Gauba, R., Desai, S., & Golhar, D. (2021). Learners’ perception of the transition to instructor-led online learning environments: Facilitators and barriers during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 22(1), 199-215.

Kurniawan, R., & Syafriani, S. (2020). Media analysis in the development of e-module based guidance inquiry integrated with ethnoscience in learning physics at senior high school. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1481, No. 1, p. 012062). IOP Publishing.

Li, Q., Li, Z., & Han, J. (2021). A hybrid learning pedagogy for surmounting the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic in the performing arts education. Education and Information Technologies, 26(6), 7635-7655.

Lindenbauer, E. (2020). A digital worksheet for diagnosing and enhancing students’ conceptions in functional thinking. Mathematics Education in the Digital Age (MEDA), 247.

Lindenbauer, E., & Lavicza, Z. (2021). From Research to Practice: Diagnosing and Enhancing Students' Conceptions in a Formative Assessment Tool Utilizing Digital Worksheets in Functional Thinking. International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education, 28(3).

Maass, K., & Engeln, K. (2018). Effects of Scaled-Up Professional Development Courses about Inquiry-Based Learning on Teachers. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6(4), 1-16.

Malau, S. M., Motlan, M. S., & Lubis, R. H. (2020). The Effect of Guided Inquiry Learning Model and Creativity on Students Science Process Skills. Journal of Transformative Education and Educational Leadership, 1(2), 29-37.

Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. (2015). Permendikbud Nomor 53 Tahun 2015 tentang Penilaian Hasil Belajar. Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Naqvi, W. M., & Sahu, A. (2020). Paradigmatic Shift in the Education System in a Time of COVID 19. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences, 9(27), 1974-1976.

Owens, A. D., & Hite, R. L. (2022). Enhancing student communication competencies in STEM using virtual global collaboration project based learning. Research in Science & Technological Education, 40(1), 76-102.

Ozkan, B. (2021). An Investigation of Scientific Process Skills of Children in the Reggio Emilia Kindergarten and in a Private Kindergarten. International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 13(3), 2430-2439.

Purwaningsih, E., Sari, S. P., Sari, A. M., & Suryadi, A. (2020). The Effect of STEM-PjBL and Discovery Learning on Improving Students' Problem-Solving Skills of Impulse and Momentum Topic. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(4), 465-476.

Serth, S., Teusner, R., Renz, J., & Uflacker, M. (2019). Evaluating Digital worksheets with Interactive Programming Exercises for K-12 Education. In 2019 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE) (pp. 1-9).

Tezcan, G., & Meriç, G. (2013). Developing a science process skills test regarding the 6th graders. The International Journal of Assessment and Evaluation, 19.

Triyason, T., Tassanaviboon, A., & Kanthamanon, P. (2020, July). Hybrid classroom: Designing for the new normal after COVID-19 pandemic. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Advances in Information Technology (pp. 1-8).

Ulger, B. B., & Çepni, S. (2020). Evaluating the effect of differentiated inquiry-based science lesson modules on gifted students' scientific process skills. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 10(4), 1289-1324.

Utomo, G. M., Setiawan, B., Rachmadtullah, R., & Iasha, V. (2021). What kind of learning media do you want? Need analysis on elementary school online learning. Jurnal Basicedu, 5(5), 4299-4305.

Wei, L., Luan, S., Nagai, L. A. E., Su, R., & Zou, Q. (2019). Exploring sequence-based features for the improved prediction of DNA N4-methylcytosine sites in multiple species. Bioinformatics, 35(8), 1326-1333.

Wenning, C. J., Teacher, P., & Program, E. (2006). A framework for teaching the nature of science.

Wenning, C. (2011). Experimental inquiry in introductory physics courses. Journal Of Physics Teacher Education Online (2), Summer 2011.

Wibawa, S. C., Cholifah, R., Utami, A. W., & Nurhidayat, A. I. (2018). Creative digital worksheet base on mobile learning. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 288, No. 1, p. 012130). IOP Publishing.

Yanto, B. E., Subali, B., & Suyanto, S. (2019). Improving students' scientific reasoning skills through the three levels of inquiry. International Journal of Instruction, 12(4), 689-704.




How to Cite

Dewi, A. K., Slamet, S. Y., Atmojo, I. R. W., & Syawaludin, A. (2022). The influence of interactive digital worksheets based on level of inquiry towards science process skills in elementary school. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 13(1), 251–258.