Higher Order Thinking Skill of Elementary Pupil wih Different Self Regulated in Learning using Printed and Electronic Learning Resources Based on Local Culture


  • Dek Ngurah Laba Laksana STKIP Citra Bakti
  • Maria Yuliana Kua STKIP Citra Bakti
  • I Gde Wawan Sudatha Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
  • Dimas Qondias STKIP Citra Bakti
  • Ngurah Mahendra Dinatha STKIP Citra Bakti




higher order thinking skill, learning resources, local culture, self-regulated learning


The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in critical thinking skills of students in inquiry learning between groups who received learning using printed learning resources and electronic learning resources, as well as the difference in critical thinking skills of students in inquiry learning after controlling for student learning independence. This research is a sham experiment. Data was collected using a 20-question self-reliance learning rubric and tests at the level of analysis, evaluation, and creation. The data was then examined using covariate analysis. Furthermore, qualitative and descriptive analyses were carried out. The findings revealed a substantial difference in students' high-level thinking skills between groups that underwent inquiry learning utilizing electronic learning resources and printed learning resources. After adjusting for learning independent variables, the results revealed a substantial difference in students' high-level thinking skills between groups of students who obtained learning in inquiry learning utilizing electronic learning resources versus printed learning resources. Electronic learning resources are the best learning resources utilized in inquiry learning to promote high-level thinking skills.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdurrahman, Ariyani, F., Maulina, H., & Nurulsari, N. (2019). Design and validation of inquiry based stem learning strategy as a powerful alternative solution to facilitate gifted students facing 21st century challenging. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists. 7 (1). 33-56. https://doi.org/10.17478/jegys.513308

Adinda, D., and Mohib, N. (2020). teaching and instructional design approaches to enhance students’ self-directed learning in blended learning environments. The Electronic Journal of e Learning, 18(2), 162-174. DOI: 10.34190/EJEL.

Agusta, A.R, Suriansyah, A., Hayati, R.P., Nurkhalis, M., Mahmudy. (2021). Learning model gawi sabumi based on local wisdom to improve student’s high order thinking skills and multiple intelligence on elementary school. International Journal of Social Science And Human Research. 4(11), 3269-3283. http://www.ijsshr.in/v4i11/29.php

Anandari, Q. S., Kurniawati, E. F., Piyana, S. O., Melinda, L. G., Meidiawati, R., & Fajar, M. R. (2019). Development of electronic module: Student learning motivation using the application of ethnoconstructivism-based flipbook kvisoft. Jurnal Pedagogik, 6(2), 416–436. doi: https://doi.org/10.33650/pjp.v6i2.584

Anderson, L.W. & Krathwohl, D.R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing. Abridged Edition. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Anderson, R. D. (2002). Reforming science teaching: What research says about inquiry. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 13(1), 1–12.

Andoko. (2020). Peningkatan HOTS dan prestasi belajar melalui metode inkuiri kelas 7C SMPN 1 Wonosobo tahun pelajaran 2018/2019. Spektra: Jurnal Kajian Pendidikan Sains, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.32699/spektra.v6i1.134

Annuuru, T.A., Johan, R.C., & Ali, M. (2017). Peningkatan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi dalam pelajaran ilmu pengetahuan alam siswa sekolah dasar melalui model pembelajaran treffinger. Edutcehnologia, 3(3), 136-146

Astra, I.M, Raihanati, R., Mujayanah, N. (2020). Development of electronic module using creative problem-solving model equipped with hots problemson the kinetic theory of gases material. Jurnal Penelitian danPengembangan Pendidikan Fisika. 6 (2). 181 - 194. https://doi.org/10.21009/1.06205

Atmojo, S.E., Lukitoaji, B.D., Noormiyanto, F. (2021). Thematic learning based on local culture in implementing national character values in inclusive referral elementary school. Jurnal Kependidikan. 7 (4). 845-856. https://doi.org/10.33394/jk.v7i4.4256

Awaludin, Wibawa, & Winarsih. (2020). Integral calculus learning using problem based learning model assisted by hypermedia-based e-book. Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.23887/jpi-undiksha.v9i2.23106.

Bass, J.E., Contant, T.L., & Carin, A.A. (2009). Teaching science as inquiry 7th. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Bishara, S. (2021). The Cultivation of Self-Directed Learning In Teaching Mathematics. World Journal On Educational Technology: Current Issues. 13(1), 82-95. https://doi.org/10.18844/wjet.v13i1.5401

Butcher, C. (2006). Designing learning: From module outline to effective teaching. Oxon: Routledge)

Calamlam, J. M. M. (2020). The development of 21st-century e-learning module assessment tool. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(3), 289–309. Doi:10.1177/0047239520953792

Charlina, C., Septyanti, E., Mustika, T.P., Rahmi, A. (2022). Electronic module as learning needs to write exposition texts for junior high school students. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 16(2), 219-225. DOI: 10.11591/edulearn.v16i2.20402

Chu, S.W.C., Reynolds, R.B., Tavares, N.J., & Lee, C.W.Y. (2017). 21st Century Skills Development Through Inquiry-Based Learning : From Theory to Practice. Singpore. Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-2481-8

Conklin, W. (2012). Higher-Order Thinking Skills to Develop 21 st Century Learners. Huntington Beach: Shell Educational Publishing, Inc.

Curran, V., Gustafson, D. L., Simmons, K., Lannon, H., Wang, C., Garmsiri, M., Wetsch, L. (2019). Adult learners’ perceptions of self-directed learning and digital technology usage in continuing professional education: an update for the digital age. Journal of Adult and Continuing Education, 147797141982731. doi:10.1177/1477971419827318

Distrik, I.W., Ertikanto, C., Sesunan, F. (2022). The Practicality and Effectiveness of the E-Worksheet with Creative Inquiry Based and HOTS Oriented “3D PageFlip” for Online Learning. Jurnal Pembelajaran Fisika. 10 (1). 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.23960/jpf.v10.n1.202201

Duffy, T.M. & Jonassen, D.H. (1992). Constructivism and the technology of instruction. New Jersey: Lawrence Erbaum Associates.

Encarnacion, R. E., Galang, A. D., & Hallar, B. A. (2021). The Impact and Effectiveness

of E-Learning on Teaching And Learning. International Journal of Computing Sciences

Research, 5(1), 383-397. doi: 10.25147/ijcsr.2017.001.1.47

Erwanto. (2020). Profil Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Siswa Pada Konsep Keanekaragaman Hayati Melalui Problem Based Learning. Jurnal Kependidikan: Jurnal Hasil Penelitian Dan Kajian Kepustakaan Di Bidang Pendidikan, Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran, 6(3), 578–587. https://doi.org/10.33394/jk.v6i3.2916

Febriana, R., Yusri, R., & Delyana, H. (2020). Modul Geometri Ruang Berbasis Problem Based Learning Terhadap Kreativitas Pemecahan Masalah. Aksioma: Jurnal Program Studi Pendidikan Matematika, 9(1), 93. https://doi.org/10.24127/ajpm.v9i1.2591

Fuady, R., & Mutalib, A.A. (2019). Audio-Visual Media in Learning. Journal of K6, Education, and Management. 1(2), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.11594/jk6em.01.02.01

Goodman and Smart. (1999). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

Grava, J. & Pole, V., (2021). The Promotion Of Self-Directed Learning In Pre-School: Reflection On Teachers' Professional Practice. Cypriot Journal of Educational Science. 16(5), 2336-2352. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v16i5.6351

Halpern, Diane F., and Dana S. Dunn. 2021. Critical Thinking: A Model of Intelligence for Solving Real-World Problems. Journal of Intelligence 9: 22. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/jintelligence9020022

Hasibuan, A.M., Saragih, S., Amry, Z. (2019). Development of Learning Materials Based on Realistic Mathematics Education to Improve Problem Solving Ability and Student Learning Independence. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education. 14 (1). 243-252. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/4000

Ichsan, I. Z., Sigit, D. V., Miarsyah, M., Ali, A., Arif, W. P., & Prayitno, T. A. (2019). HOTS-AEP: Higher order thinking skills from elementary to master students in environmental learning. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 935–942. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.935.

Indah, P. (2020). Development of HOTS (High Order Thinking Skill) Oriented Learning Through Discovery Learning Model to Increase The Critical Thinking Skill of High School Students. International Journal of Chemistry Education Research, 3(3). https://doi.org/10.20885/ijcer.vol4.iss1.art4.

Kamelia, K. (2019). Using Video as Media of Teaching in English Language Classroom: Expressing Congratulation and Hopes. Utamax : Journal of Ultimate Research and Trends in Education, 1(1), 34– 38. https://doi.org/10.31849/utamax.v1i1.2742.

Karataş, K., Şentürk, C., & Teke, A. (2021). The Mediating Role of Self-Directed Learning Readiness in the Relationship Between Teaching-Learning Conceptions and Lifelong Learning Tendencies. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 46(6). 54-77


King, F. J., Goodson, L., & Rohani, F. (2010). Assessment & evaluation educational services program: Higher-order thinking skills. Washington DC: A publication of the Educational Services Program.

Kua, M.Y., Suparmi, N.W., & Laksana, D.N.L. (2021). Virtual physics laboratory with real world problem based on ngada local wisdom in basic physics practicum. Journal of Education Technology, 5 (4), 520-530. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.23887/jet.v5i4.40533

Kumala, F. N., Setiawan, D. A., & Shaleha, P. R. (2020). Contextual-Based Animal Encyclopedia: HOTS on Elementary School’s Students. 2nd International Conference on Education and Social Science Research (ICESRE 2019) Contextual-Based, 417(Icesre 2019), 132–137. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.200318.025.

Laksana, D. N. L., Seso, M. A., & Riwu, I. U. (2019). Content and flores cultural context based thematic electronic learning materials: Teachers and students’ perception. European Journal of Education Studies, 5(9), 145–155. doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2542946.

Laksana, D.N.L., Degeng, I.N.S., & Dasna, I.W. (2019). The effects of inquiry- based learning and learning styles on primary school students’ conceptual understanding in multimedia learning environment. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 18(1), 51-62. doi: https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/19.18.51

Lapuz, A,M.E and Fulgencio, M.N. (2020). Improving The Critical Thinking Skills of Secondary School Students Using Problem-Based Learning. International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR), 4(1), 1-7. www.ijeais.org/ijamr

Liana, D.E., Muzzazinah, M., & Indrowati, M. (2022). Development of Guided Inquiry-Based Science E-Modules to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Ability. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 8(3), 1368–1375. https://doi.org/10.29303/jppipa.v8i3.1668.

Maharani, S.D., Susanti, R., Indarti, L.H., Syamsi, A. (2022). Integrating HOTS-Based Student Electronic Worksheet: Teaching Styles in Elementary School During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Social Studies Education Research. 13 (3). 98-119.


Maksum, H. & Purwanto, W. (2022). The Development of Electronic Teaching Module For Implementation of Project-Based Learning During the Pandemic. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IJEMST), 10(2), 293-307. https://doi.org/10.46328/ijemst.2247

Mamun, M.A.A, Lawrie, G, Wright, T. (2020). Instructional design of scaffolded online learning modules for self-directed and inquiry-based learning environments. Computers & Education. 144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103695

Maniotes, L. K., & Kuhlthau, C. C. (2014). Making the Shift: From Traditional Research to Guiding Inquiry Learning. Knowledge Quest, 43(2), 8–17. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1045936.pdf

Mclsaac, M.S., & Gunawardena. (1996). Handbook of research for educational communications and technology. New York: AECT

Morris, T. H. (2020). Creativity Through Self-Directed Learning: Three Distinct Dimensions of Teacher Support. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 1–11. doi:10.1080/02601370.2020.1727577

Percival, F. & Ellington, H. (1993). A Handbook of educational technology. London: Kogan Page

Piaget, J. (1972). The Child's Worldview. Tel Aviv: Poalim Library (In Hebrew).

Pursitasari, I.D., Suhardi, E. Putra, A.P., & Rachman, I. (2020). Enhancement of Student’s Critical Thinking Skill through Science Context-based Inquiry Learning. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(1), 97-105. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v9i1.21884

Putranta, H., & Supahar. (2019). Synthesis of the Cognitive Aspects’ Science Literacy and Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in Chapter Momentum and Impulse. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1397(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1397/1/012014.

Qondias, D., Lasmawan, I W.,; Dantes, N; Arnyana, IBP (2022). Effectiveness of Multicultural Problem-Based Learning Models in Improving Social Attitudes and Critical Thinking Skills of Elementary School Students in Thematic Instruction. Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, 9(2): 62-70. DOI: 10.20448/jeelr.v9i2.3812

Rahayu, S., Ladamay, I., Kumala, F.N, Susanti, R.H., Purwono, B.S.A. (2022). Development of Fun High Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) based Thematic Learning Electronic LKPD to Increase the Intensity of Independent Learning of Elementary School Students. Journal of Positive School Psychology. 6 (4).10731-10739.


Reigeluth, C.M. (1999). Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishing

Ronger., R. (1990). The 19 habits of highky successful people: Powerful strategies for personal triumphs. Malaysia: Wynwood Press.

Samri, F., Rewo, J.M., & Laksana, D.N.L. (2020). Electronic thematic teaching multimedia with local culture based materials and its effect on conceptual mastery of primary school students. European Journal of Education Studies, 7 (12), 625-641. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v7i12.3474

Saraswati, P. M. S., & Agustika, G. N. S. (2020). Kemampuan Berpikir Tingkat Tinggi Dalam Menyelesaikan Soal HOTS Mata Pelajaran Matematika. Jurnal Ilmiah Sekolah Dasar Undiksha, 4(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.23887/jisd.v4i2.25336

Saripudin, D., Abdulkarim , A., Komalasari, K. (2018). Culture-Based Social Studies Learning Model in Developing Student Multiculturalism. The Central European Journalof Social Sciences and Humanities. 51. 173-183. https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2018.51.1.14

Seels, B.B. & Richey, R.C. (1994). Instructional technology: The definition and domains of the field. Washington, DC: AECT

Simamora, R.E., Saragih, S., Hasratuddin. (2019). Improving Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving Ability and Self-Efficacy through Guided Discovery Learning in Local Culture Context. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education. 14(1). 61-72. https://doi.org/10.12973/iejme/3966

Siregar, A., Sinaga, B., Syahputra, H. (2021). Development of Mandailing Culture-Based Learning Devices with an Open-Ended Approach to Improve Students 'Mathematic Connection and Self-Efficiency Abilities SMPN 2 Batangtoru. Budapest International Research and Critics in Linguistics and Education (BirLE) Journal. 4 (1). 226-238. https://doi.org/10.33258/birle.v4i1.15802

Sofyan, H., Anggereini, E., & Saadiah, J. (2019). Development Of E-Modules Based on Local Wisdomi In Central Learning Model at Kindergartens In Jambi City. European Journal Of Educational Research, 8(4), 1137-1143. Http://Doi.Org/10.12973/Eu-Jer.8.4.1137

Suardana, I.N., Redhana, I.W., A. A. Sudiatmika, A.A.I.A.R., Selamat, I.N. (2018). Students’ Critical Thinking Skills in Chemistry Learning Using Local Culture-Based 7E Learning Cycle Model. International Journal of Instruction. 11(2). 399-412.https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1174908

Sudatha, G.W.I., Degeng, N.S.I., & Kamdi, W. (2018). The effect of visualization type and student spatial abilities on learning achievement. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 17(4), 551-563. doi: https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/18.17.551

Sudatha, I.G.W., & Simamora, A.H. (2021). The effectiveness of using dynamic visualization in natural science learning to improve students' understanding in junior high schools. Journal of Educational Science and Technology, 7 (1), 32-39. doi: https://doi.org/10.26858/est.v7i1.17681

Sutiani, A., Situmorang, M., & Silalahi, A. (2021). Implementation of an Inquiry Learning Model with Science Literacy to Improve Student Critical Thinking Skills. International Journal of Instruction, 14(2), 117-138. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2021.1428a

Toker, S., & Baturay, M. H. (2021). Developing Disposition to Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving Perception in Instructional Design Projects for Producing Digital Materials. International Journal of Technology and Design Education. doi:10.1007/s10798-020-09646-2

Triwahyuningtyas, D., Ningtyas, A.S., & Rahayu, S. (2020). The problem-based learning e-module of planes using kvisoft flipbook maker for elementary school students. Jurnal Prima Edukasia, 8(2), 199-208. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21831/jpe.v8i2.34446

Turan, M.B., Koc, K. (2018). The Impact of Self-Directed Learning Readiness on Critical Thinking and Self-Efficacy Among the Students of the School Of Physical Education And Sport. International Journal of Higher Education. 7(6),98-105. doi:10.5430/ijhe.v7n6p9

Ucu, C., Sri, S., Erdawati, Yuli, R. (2019). The Influence of Web-Based Learning and Learning Independence toward Student’s Scientific Literacy in Chemistry Course. International Journal of Instruction. 12 (4). 655-668. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1230055

Vygotsky, L. S., (1962). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Widyawati, A., & Sujatmika, S. (2020). Electronic Student Worksheet Based on Ethnoscience Increasing HOTS: Literature Review. International Conference on Technology, Education and Sciences.


Wihartanti, L.V., & Wibawa, R. P. (2017). Development of e-Learning Microsoft Sway as Innovation of Local Culture-Based Learning Media. Dinamika Pendidikan. 12 (1). 53-60. https://doi.org/10.15294/dp.v12i1.10582

Wongsri, N., Cantwell, R.H., & Archer, J. (2002). The validation of measures of selfefficacy, motivation and self-regulated learning among thai tertiary students. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Brisbane, December 2002.

Wulandari, D.S., Prayitno, B. A., & Maridi, M. (2022). Developing the Guided Inquiry-Based Module on the Circulatory System To Improve Student's Critical Thinking Skills. JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), 8(1), 77-85. https://doi.org/10.22219/jpbi.v8i1.16512

Zhao, L., He, W., Liu, X., Tai, K.H., & Hong, J.C. (2021). Exploring the effects on fifth graders’ concept achievement and scientific epistemological beliefs: applying the prediction-observation-explanation inquiry-based learning model in science education. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 20(4), 664-676. doi: https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/21.20.664

Zhu, M., Bonk, C. J., Berri, S. (2022). Fostering Self-directed learning in MOOCs: Motivation, Learning Strategies, and Instruction. Online Learning, 26(1), 153-173.


Zulfiani, Suwarna, I. P., & Sumantri, M. F. (2020). Science adaptive assessment tool: Kolb’s learning style profile and student’s higher order thinking skill level. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(2), 194–207. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v9i2.23840.




How to Cite

Laksana, D. N. L., Kua, M. Y., Sudatha, I. G. W., Qondias, D., & Dinatha, N. M. (2024). Higher Order Thinking Skill of Elementary Pupil wih Different Self Regulated in Learning using Printed and Electronic Learning Resources Based on Local Culture. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 14(2), 216–229. https://doi.org/10.47750/pegegog.14.02.26