The Effect of E-learning and Students’ Digital Literacy towards Their Learning Outcomes
Keywords:digital literacy; e-learning; learning outcomes
The present study aimed at examining the effect of e-learning and students ‘digital literacy towards their learning outcomes. It was designed in quasi-experimental research with post-test only control group within 2x2 factorial design. The sample of the study involved 96 vocational students obtained from random sampling technique. Two instruments were conducted in this study, namely questionnaire and test. The obtained data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially assisted by SPSS 25. The results of the study show 1) there are different learning outcomes between students who were taught using e-learning and conventional method; 2) there is an interactional effect between e-learning and students’ digital literacy; 3) there are different learning outcomes between students with high digital literacy of experimental and high control group; and 4) there are different learning outcomes between students with low digital literacy of experimental and high control group. The provision of e-learning is effective for learning process. It is suggested for the educator to introduce and give chance to integrate learning and technology to make students familiar with various technology which gives impact to their learning outcomes.
Alenezi, A. (2020). The role of e-learning materials in enhancing teaching and learning behaviors. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 10(1), 48–56. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2020.10.1.1338
Ananda, R. (2019). The Effect of Learning Strategies and Learning Independence on Learning Outcomes in Learning Evaluation Subject. IJLRES-International Journal on Language, Research, and Education Studies, 3(3), 340–350. https://doi.org/10.30575/2017/IJLRES-2019091201
Astra, I. M., Wahyuni, C., & Nasbey, H. (2015). Improvement of Learning Process and Learning Outcomes in Physics Learning by using Collaborative Learning Model of Group Investigation at High School (grade X, SMAN 14 Jakarta). Journal of Education and Practice, 6(11), 75–80.
Atmanegara, Y. (2019). Building Students’ Digital Literacy Skill through Weblog - Library Center Approach. Didascein Bahasa, 4(2), 21–32.
Baber, H. (2020). Determinants of students’ perceived learning outcome and satisfaction in online learning during the pandemic of covid-19. Journal of Education and E-Learning Research, 7(3), 285–292. https://doi.org/10.20448/journal.509.2020.73.285.292
Badrus, B., & Arifin, Z. (2021). The Effect of The Blended Learning Model on The Improvement of Student Learning Outcomes. Nazhruna: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 4(1), 108–116. https://doi.org/10.31538/nzh.v4i1.836
Bali, M. M. E. I., Aliyah, Z., & Humaidi, D. (2022). Effectiveness of Hybrid Learning Assisted in e-Learning Media in Mathematics Learning at Elementary School. Journal of Innovation in Educational and Cultural Research, 3(4), 683–690. https://doi.org/10.46843/jiecr.v3i4.340
Basir, A., Kamaliah, K., Harahap, A., Fauzi, A., & Karyanto, B. (2021). How Universities Entrust Digital Literacy to Improve Student Learning Outcomes During the COVID-19 Disruption. Jurnal Iqra’ : Kajian Ilmu Pendidikan, 6(1), 235–246. https://doi.org/10.25217/ji.v6i1.1146
Bismala, L., & Manurung, Y. H. (2021). Student satisfaction in e-learning along the covid-19 pandemic with importance performance analysis. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 10(3), 753–759. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v10i3.21467
Dewi, C. (2022). Digital literacy analysis of elementary school students through implementation of e-learning based learning management system. Journal of Education Technology, 6(2), 199–206.
Erarslan, A., & Topkaya, E. Z. (2017). EFL Students’ Attitudes Towards e-Learning And Effect of An Online Course on Students’ Success in English. The Literacy Trek, 3(2), 80–101.
Erragcha, N., & Babay, H. (2023). Perceived quality and satisfaction with e-Learning during COVID-19: Moderating role of co-production. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 13(1), 64–72. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2023.13.1.1781
Farhan, W., Razmak, J., Demers, S., & Laflamme, S. (2019). E-learning systems versus instructional communication tools: Developing and testing a new e-learning user interface from the perspectives of teachers and students. Technology in Society, 59(February). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2019.101192
Hall, M., Nix, I., & Baker, K. (2013). Student experiences and perceptions of digital literacy skills development : engaging learners by design? The Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 11(3), 207–225.
Hamutoglu, N. B., Savasci, M., & Sezen-Gultekin, G. (2019). Digital literacy skills and attitudes towards e-learning. Journal of Education and Future, 3(16), 93–107.
Hamzah, Tambak, S., Hamzah, M. L., Purwati, A. A., Irawan, Y., & Umam, M. I. H. (2022). Effectiveness of Blended Learning Model Based on Problem-Based Learning in Islamic Studies Course. International Journal of Instruction, 15(2), 775–792. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2022.15242a
Harmoko, D. D. (2021). Digital Literacy As A Solution To Improve The Quality Of Indonesia’s Human Resources. Research and Development Journal of Education, 7(2), 413. https://doi.org/10.30998/rdje.v7i2.10569
Islam, M. K., Sarker, M. F. H., & Islam, M. S. (2022). Promoting student-centred blended learning in higher education: A model. E-Learning and Digital Media, 19(1), 36–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/20427530211027721
Jamal, F. Q., & Imran, M. (2018). Extending the Technology Acceptance Model for Use of e-Learning Systems by Digital Learners. IEEE Access, 6, 73395–73404. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2881384
Jamison, H. learning: A. integrative approach to engineering education A., Kolmos, A., & Holgaard, J. E. (2014). Hybrid learning: An integrative approach to engineering education. Journal of Engineering Education, 103(2), 253–273. https://doi.org/10.1002/jee.20041
Kacetl, J., & Semradova, I. (2020). Reflection on blended learning and e-learning - case study. Procedia Computer Science, 176, 1322–1327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2020.09.141
Kaeophanuek, S., Jaitip, N.-S., & Nilsook, P. (2018). How to enhance digital literacy skills among information sciences students. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 8(4), 292–297. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2018.8.4.1050
Kembuan, D. R. ., & Daud, M. (2019). Hasil Belajar Mahasiswa PTB Fatek Unima Ditinjau Dari Fasilitas Belajar Dan Komitmen Belajar Mahasiswa. Jurnal Sains Dan Teknologi, 2(2), 129–136.
Khan, M. A., Vivek, Nabi, M. K., Khojah, M., & Tahir, M. (2021). Students’ perception towards e-learning during covid-19 pandemic in India: An empirical study. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010057
Khan, N., Sarwar, A., Chen, T. B., & Khan, S. (2022). Connecting digital literacy in higher education to the 21st century workforce. Knowledge Management and E-Learning, 14(1), 46–61. https://doi.org/10.34105/j.kmel.2022.14.004
Kintu, M. J., Zhu, C., & Kagambe, E. (2017). Blended learning effectiveness: the relationship between student characteristics, design features and outcomes. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-017-0043-4
Kristanto, A., Mustaji, M., & Mariono, A. (2017). The Development of Instructional Materials E-Learning Based On Blended Learning. International Education Studies, 10(7), 10. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v10n7p10
Kumar, S. (2016). Curriculum Enrichment for Learning Outcomes in Higher Education. International Journal of Scientific Research and Modern Education (IJSRME), I(Ii), 2455–5630.
Latip, M., Noh, I., Tamrin, M., & Latip, S. (2020). Students’ acceptance for e-learning and the effects of self-efficacy in Malaysia. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(5), 658–674.
Latip, M. S. A., Tamrin, M., Noh, I., Rahim, F. A., & Latip, S. N. N. A. (2022). Factors affecting e-learning acceptance among students: The moderating effect of self-efficacy. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 12(2), 116–122. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2022.12.2.1594
Li, Q., Li, Z., & Han, J. (2021). A hybrid learning pedagogy for surmounting the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic in the performing arts education. Education and Information Technologies, 26(6), 7635–7655. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10612-1
Liu, Q. (2021). Research on the effectiveness of hybrid teaching of general mechanical equipment maintenance course. Journal of Service Science and Management, 14(06), 627–635. https://doi.org/10.4236/jssm.2021.146039
Lukitasari, F., Nurlaela, L., Ismawati, R., & Rijanto, T. (2020). Comparison of Learning Outcomes Between Discovery Learning with Inquiry Learning Reviewed of Student Learning Independence At Vocational High School. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies, 2(10), 837–842. https://doi.org/10.29103/ijevs.v2i10.3305
Mihailidis, P. (2015). Digital curation and digital literacy: Evaluating the role of curation in developing critical literacies for participation in digital culture. E-Learning and Digital Media, 12(5–6), 443–458. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042753016631868
Mohammadyari, S., & Singh, H. (2015). Understanding the effect of e-learning on individual performance: The role of digital literacy. Computers and Education, 82, 11–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.10.025
Mugenyi, J. K., & Chang, Z. (2016). Student Characteristics and Learning Outcomes in a Blended Learning Environment Intervention in a Ugandan University. The Electronic Journal of E-Learning Volume, 14(3), 181–195.
Munir, N. S., Gani, H. A., & Mappalotteng, A. M. (2022). Pengaruh Media Pembelajaran E-Learning, Gaya Belajar, Dan Motivasi Belajar Terhadap Hasil Belajar Siswa Pada Mata Pelajaran Simulasi Dan Komunikasi Digital Kelas X Di SMK Negeri 2 Pinrang. UNM of Journal Technologycal and Vocational, 6(1), 25–34.
Munro, V., Morello, A., Oster, C., Redmond, C., Vnuk, A., Lennon, S., & Lawn, S. (2018). E-learning for self-management support: Introducing blended learning for graduate students - A cohort study. BMC Medical Education, 18(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1328-6
Nammakhunt, A., Porouhan, P., & Premchaiswadi, W. (2023). Creating and Collecting e-Learning Event Logs to Analyze Learning Behavior of Students through Process Mining. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 13(2), 211–222. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2023.13.2.1798
Nikou, S., & Maslov, I. (2023). Finnish university students’ satisfaction with e-learning outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Management, 37(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-04-2022-0166
Orlov, G., Mckee, D., Berry, J., Boyle, A., Diciccio, T., Ransom, T., Rees-jones, A., & Stoye, J. (2021). Learning during the COVID-19 pandemic : It is not who you teach , but how you teach. Economics Letters, 202, 109812. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2021.109812
Peng, R., & Fu, R. (2021). The effect of Chinese EFL students’ learning motivation on learning outcomes within a blended learning environment. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 37(6), 61–74. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.6235
Perdana, R., Yani, R., Jumadi, J., & Rosana, D. (2019). Assessing Students’ Digital Literacy Skill in Senior High School Yogyakarta. JPI (Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia), 8(2), 169. https://doi.org/10.23887/jpi-undiksha.v8i2.17168
Prasetyo, C. D., Suja, S. I., & Asrori, A. R. M. (2021). Pengaruh Gaya Belajar, Minat Belajar, dan Fasilitas Belajar Terhadap Hasil Belajar Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial Siswa Kelas V SD Negeri 1 Besuki Kecamatan Besuki Kabupaten Tulungagung. Jurnal Pendidikan Tambusai, 5(3), 5744–5752.
Puriwat, W., & Tripopsakul, S. (2021). The impact of e-learning quality on student satisfaction and continuance usage intentions during covid-19. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 11(8), 368–374. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2021.11.8.1536
Purnama, S., Ulfah, M., Machali, I., Wibowo, A., & Narmaditya, B. S. (2021). Does digital literacy influence students’ online risk? Evidence from Covid-19. Heliyon, 7(6), e07406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07406
Puspitasari, Siska, Hayati, K. N., & Purwaningsih, A. (2022). Efektivitas Penggunaan Model Blended Learning Terhadap Motivasi Belajar dan Hasil Belajar IPS. Jurnal Basicedu, 6(1), 1252–1262. https://doi.org/10.31004/basicedu.v6i1.2186
Puspitasari, Susy. (2018). Hubungan minat dan aktivitas dalam tutorial online dengan hasil belajar mahasiswa. Jurnal Teknologi Pendidilkan Dan Pembelajaran, 5(2), 156–164.
Raes, A., Detienne, L., Windey, I., & Depaepe, F. (2020). A systematic literature review on synchronous hybrid learning: gaps identified. Learning Environments Research, 23(3), 269–290. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-019-09303-z
Rahayu, P., & Iswari, R. S. (2021). The Effectiveness of Blended Learning Models toward The Motivation and Learning Outcomes of High School Students in Ecological Materials. Journal of Biology Education, 10(2), 163–170.
Rahayu, W. P., Hidayatin, H., & Churiyah, M. (2020). Development of a Project-Based Learning Assessment System to Improve Students’ Competence. Jurnal Pendidikan Ekonomi Dan Bisnis (JPEB), 8(2), 86–102. https://doi.org/10.21009/jpeb.008.2.1
Rahmaniah, F. (2022). The use of hybrid teaching to teach English in vocational high school. ENLIT Journal, 2(1), 24–36. https://doi.org/10.33654/enlit.v2i1.1638
Rashid, S., & Yadav, S. S. (2020). Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Higher Education and Research. Indian Journal of Human Development, 3(1), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1177/0973703020946700
Robroo, I. (2019). The effect of using e-learning for enhancing active learning of pre-service teachers. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 9(11), 799–804. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2019.9.11.1307
Sembiring, Z., Yudistira, D., Zulkarnaen, I., & Masdani. (2021). Implikasi Penerapan Metode Pembelajaran Terhadap Hasil Belajar Bagi Mahasiswa Yang Memiliki Minat Belajar Tinggi. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Teknologi, 2(1), 14–19.
Singh, A. K., & Meena, M. K. (2022). Challenges of virtual classroom during COVID-19 pandemic : An empirical analysis of Indian higher education. 11(1), 207–212. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v11i1.21712
Singh, J., Steele, K., & Singh, L. (2021). Combining the Best of Online and Face-to-Face Learning: Hybrid and Blended Learning Approach for COVID-19, Post Vaccine, & Post-Pandemic World. In Journal of Educational Technology Systems (Vol. 50, Issue 2). https://doi.org/10.1177/00472395211047865
Sobaih, A. E. E., Hasanein, A., & Elshaer, I. A. (2022). Higher Education in and after COVID-19: The Impact of Using Social Network Applications for E-Learning on Students’ Academic Performance. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095195
Sukiman, Haningsih, S., & Rohmi, P. (2022). The pattern of hybrid learning to maintain learning effectiveness at the higher education level post covid-19 pandemic. European Journal of Educational Research, 11(3), 1245–1257.
Tai, D. W. S., Zhang, R.-C., Wang, Y.-T., & Wang, R. (2017). Determining digital literacy competencies in technical senior high schools using fuzzy delphi analysis. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 7(8), 612–616. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2017.7.8.941
Tang, C. M., & Chaw, L. Y. (2016). Digital Literacy : A Prerequisite for Effective Learning in a Blended Learning Environment? The Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 14(1), 54–65.
Utami, P. S. (2016). Pengaruh gaya belajar dan metode pembelajaran terhadap hasil belajar ips siswa SMP. Jurnal Dimensi Pendidikan Dan Pembelajaran, 4(1), 9–16. https://doi.org/10.24269/dpp.v4i1.54
Wei, X., Saab, N., & Admiraal, W. (2023). Do learners share the same perceived learning outcomes in MOOCs? Identifying the role of motivation, perceived learning support, learning engagement, and self-regulated learning strategies. Internet and Higher Education, 56(July 2021), 100880. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2022.100880
Wijaya, R., Lie, D., Efendi, E., & Wijaya, A. (2018). Pengaruh Fasilitas Belajar Dan Motivasi Belajar Terhadap Hasil Belajar Pada Smp Kristen Kalam Kudus Pematangsiantar. Maker: Jurnal Manajemen, 2(1), 17–28. https://doi.org/10.37403/maker.v2i1.33
Yang, M., Kim, J., & Korea, S. (2014). Correlation between Digital Literacy and Self-Regulated Learning Skills of Learners in University E-Learning Environment. Advanced Science and Technology Letters, 71, 80–83.
Yashalova, N. N., Shreider, N. V., & Yakovleva, E. N. (2019). Digital Literacy in Society: The Situation, Problems, and Prospects at the Current Stage of Scientific and Technical Progress. Scientific and Technical Information Processing, 46(4), 213–218. https://doi.org/10.3103/S014768821904004X
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.