An investigation of item difficulties in assertive communication based on Yogyakarta cultural values


  • Muya Barida universitas ahmad dahlan
  • Nur Hidayah
  • M. Ramli
  • Ahmad Taufiq
  • Sunaryono Sunaryono



Assertiveness, Assertive communication, Rasch model, Student assertiveness, culture


This research examines the difficulty pattern of assertive communication scale instrument items containing spiritual values. The research and development design applies ADDIE work procedures (Analysis, Design, Development or Production, Implementation or delivery and Evaluation). The participants of the item development and item difficulty test were 425 junior high school adolescents in Yogyakarta who were selected using stratified random sampling technique. The data analysis technique used the Rasch model. The findings show that the item difficulty pattern from the aspect of assertive communication contains cultural values ​​which consists of 20 items indicating that item number 6, which reads "I respond to the words/advice of my parents with harsh words because for me it is nonsense." with +1.57 logit indicates that this item is the most difficult for respondents to agree on in the cultural value-based assertive communication scale instrument that has been answered by the respondent. Meanwhile, item number 19, which reads “I respect religious differences among my friends or neighbours” is the item most respondents agree on.


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How to Cite

Barida, M., Hidayah, N. ., Ramli, M., Taufiq, . A. ., & Sunaryono, S. (2021). An investigation of item difficulties in assertive communication based on Yogyakarta cultural values. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 11(4), 100–109.




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