Achievement motivation and learning behavior of students during COVID-19 pandemic: gender differences


  • Adi Atmoko Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
  • IM Hambali Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Eny Tri Wahyuni Universitas Mochammad Sroedji



Achievement motivation, Learning behavior, Gender differences, COVID-19


This study aimed to describe and compare the achievement motivation and learning behavior based on male and female students in Indonesia. Respondents have involved 1052 female high school students and 637 male high school students using the cluster random sampling technique. Data were collected using a scale of achievement motivation and learning behavior with item validity of 0.3, and each had Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.811 and 0.866 and analyzed with descriptive and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed significant differences in the level of achievement motivation and learning behavior of male and female students. Female students showed better achievement motivation and learning behavior than male students. This study recommends the need for guidance and counseling services to increase achievement motivation and student learning behavior based on gender differences.


Download data is not yet available.


Adnan, M., & Anwar, K. (2020). Online Learning amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: Students’ Perspectives. Online Submission, 2(1), 45–51.

Afrianti, N., & Aditia, R. (2020). Online Learning Readiness in Facing the Covid-19 Pandemic at MTS Manunggal Sagara Ilmi, Deli Serdang, Indonesia. Journal of International Conference Proceedings (JICP), 3(2), 59–66.

Agu, C. F., Stewart, J., McFarlane-Stewart, N., & Rae, T. (2021). COVID-19 pandemic effects on nursing education: Looking through the lens of a developing country. International Nursing Review, 68(2), 153–158.

Alhadi, S., Saputra, W. N. E., Supriyanto, A., & Da Costa, A. (2018). Self-Regulated Learning: Is it Different between Men and Women Students? 7(2), 46–52.

Almusharraf, N., & Khahro, S. (2020). Students satisfaction with online learning experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 15(21), 246–267.

Andarwulan, T., Fajri, T. A. A., & Damayanti, G. (2021). Elementary Teachers’ Readiness toward the Online Learning Policy in the New Normal Era during COVID-19. International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 771–786.

Atici, M. (2014). Examination of school counselors’ activities: From the perspectives of counselor efficacy and collaboration with school staff. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 14(6).

Bempechat, J., & Shernoff, D. J. (2012). Parental influences on achievement motivation and student engagement. In S. Christenson, A. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 315–342). Springer.

Bonneville-Roussy, A., Evans, P., Verner-Filion, J., Vallerand, R. J., & Bouffard, T. (2017). Motivation and coping with the stress of assessment: Gender differences in outcomes for university students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 48, 28–42.

Choudhary, R., Dullo, P., & Tandon, R. V. (2011). Gender differences in learning style preferences of first year medical students. Pak J Physiol, 7(2), 42–45.

Churiyah, M., Sholikhan, S., Filianti, F., & Sakdiyyah, D. A. (2020). Indonesia education readiness conducting distance learning in Covid-19 pandemic situation. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 7(6), 491–507.

Ciotti, M., Ciccozzi, M., Terrinoni, A., Jiang, W.-C., Wang, C.-B., & Bernardini, S. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 57(6), 365–388.

Cullen, W., Gulati, G., & Kelly, B. D. (2020). Mental health in the COVID-19 pandemic. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 113(5), 311–312.

Daniel, J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1), 91–96.

Dehkordi, P. S., Najafian, F., & Mir, F. (2019). The Effect of Gender and Circadian Rhythm on the Performance of Motor Memory and Achievement Motivation in Youth. Sport Psychology Studies (Ie, Mutaleat Ravanshenasi Varzeshi), 7(26), 195–212.

D’Lima, G. M., Winsler, A., & Kitsantas, A. (2014). Ethnic and gender differences in first-year college students’ goal orientation, self-efficacy, and extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. The Journal of Educational Research, 107(5), 341–356.

Emadpoor, L., Lavasani, M. G., & Shahcheraghi, S. M. (2016). Relationship between perceived social support and psychological well-being among students based on mediating role of academic motivation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 14(3), 284–290.

Erdiana, N., Bahri, S., & Akhmal, C. N. (2019). Male vs. female EFL students: Who is better in speaking skill? Studies in English Language and Education, 6(1), 131–140.

Giatman, M., Siswati, S., & Basri, I. Y. (2020). Online learning quality control in the pandemic Covid-19 era in Indonesia. Journal of Nonformal Education, 6(2), 168–175.

Gonzalez-Ramirez, J., Mulqueen, K., Zealand, R., Silverstein, S., Mulqueen, C., & BuShell, S. (2021). Emergency Online Learning: College Students’ Perceptions During the COVID-19 Pandemic. College Student Journal, 55(1), 29–46.

Goswami, A., & Dutta, S. (2015). Gender differences in technology usage—A literature review. Open Journal of Business and Management, 4(1), 51–59.

Gupta, P. K., & Mili, R. (2017). Impact of academic motivation on academic achievement: A study on high schools students. European Journal of Education Studies, 2(10), 43–51.

Haftador, A. M., Shirazi, F., & Mohebbi, Z. (2021). Online class or flipped-jigsaw learning? Which one promotes academic motivation during the COVID-19 pandemic? BMC Medical Education, 21(1), 1–8.

Hermanto, Y. B., & Srimulyani, V. A. (2021). The challenges of online learning during the covid-19 pandemic. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran, 54(1), 46–57.

Jo, I.-H., Yu, T., Lee, H., & Kim, Y. (2015). Relations between student online learning behavior and academic achievement in higher education: A learning analytics approach. In G. Chen, V. Kumar, H. R. Kinshuk, & S. Kong (Eds.), Emerging Issues in Smart Learning. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology (pp. 275–287). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., Roseth, C., & Shin, T. S. (2014). The relationship between motivation and achievement in interdependent situations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(9), 622–633.

Kaffenberger, M., & Pritchett, L. (2020). Aiming higher: Learning profiles and gender equality in 10 low-and middle-income countries. International Journal of Educational Development, 79, 102272.

Kamal, A. A., Shaipullah, N. M., Truna, L., Sabri, M., & Junaini, S. N. (2020). Transitioning to online learning during COVID-19 Pandemic: Case study of a Pre-University Centre in Malaysia. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 11(6), 217–223.

Kang, Y., & Kim, D.-H. (2021). A Qualitative Study on the Perceptions and Learning Behavior of Medical Students in Online Classes. Korean Medical Education Review, 23(1), 46–55.

Kaushanskaya, M., Gross, M., & Buac, M. (2013). Gender differences in child word learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 82–89.

Khattar, A., Jain, P. R., & Quadri, S. M. K. (2020). Effects of the disastrous pandemic COVID 19 on learning styles, activities and mental health of young Indian students-a machine learning approach. 2020 4th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS), 1190–1195.

Klootwijk, C. L., Koele, I. J., van Hoorn, J., Güroğlu, B., & van Duijvenvoorde, A. C. (2021). Parental Support and Positive Mood Buffer Adolescents’ Academic Motivation During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 31(3), 780–795.

Kulikowski, K., Przytuła, S., & Sulkowski, L. (2021). The motivation of academics in remote teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic in polish universities—Opening the debate on a new equilibrium in e-learning. Sustainability, 13(5), 1–16.

Kulturel-Konak, S., D’Allegro, M. L., & Dickinson, S. (2011). Review of gender differences in learning styles: Suggestions for STEM education. Contemporary Issues in Education Research (CIER), 4(3), 9–18.

Lee, J. (2013). Can writing attitudes and learning behavior overcome gender difference in writing? Evidence from NAEP. Written Communication, 30(2), 164–193.

Lemos, M. S., & Veríssimo, L. (2014). The relationships between intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and achievement, along elementary school. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112, 930–938.

Lin, C.-L., Jin, Y. Q., Zhao, Q., Yu, S.-W., & Su, Y.-S. (2021). Factors influence students’ switching behavior to online learning under COVID-19 pandemic: A push–pull–mooring model perspective. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 30(3), 229–245.

Macher, D., Paechter, M., Papousek, I., & Ruggeri, K. (2012). Statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, learning behavior, and academic performance. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 27(4), 483–498.

Mairing, J. P., Sidabutar, R., Lada, E. Y., & Aritonang, H. (2021). Synchronous and asynchronous online learning of advanced statistics during Covid-19 pandemic. JRAMathEdu (Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education), 6(3), 191–205.

McGeown, S., Goodwin, H., Henderson, N., & Wright, P. (2012). Gender differences in reading motivation: Does sex or gender identity provide a better account? Journal of Research in Reading, 35(3), 328–336.

Meece, J. L., Glienke, B. B., & Burg, S. (2006). Gender and motivation. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 351–373.

Mokhlesi, V., & Patil, C. B. (2018). A study of gender differences in emotional Intelligence and learning behaviour among children. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 6(4), 2349–3429.

Moreno, C., Wykes, T., Galderisi, S., Nordentoft, M., Crossley, N., Jones, N., Cannon, M., Correll, C. U., Byrne, L., & Carr, S. (2020). How mental health care should change as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(9), 813–824.

Mpungose, C. B. (2020). Emergent transition from face-to-face to online learning in a South African University in the context of the Coronavirus pandemic. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 7(1), 1–9.

Ong, C.-S., & Lai, J.-Y. (2006). Gender differences in perceptions and relationships among dominants of e-learning acceptance. Computers in Human Behavior, 22(5), 816–829.

Oosterhoff, B., Palmer, C. A., Wilson, J., & Shook, N. (2020). Adolescents’ motivations to engage in social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic: Associations with mental and social health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 67(2), 179–185.

Pašková, L., & McGeown, S. P. (2012). Gender differences in achievement motivation. In Psychology of Gender Differences (pp. 59–79). Nova Science Publishers.

Pfefferbaum, B., & North, C. S. (2020). Mental health and the Covid-19 pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(6), 510–512.

Phelps, C., & Sperry, L. L. (2020). Children and the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(S1), S73.

Purwadi, P., Saputra, W. N. E., Wahyudi, A., Supriyanto, A., Muyana, S., Rohmadheny, P. S., Ariyanto, R. D., & Kurniawan, S. J. (2021). Student Perceptions of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: A Study of Phenomenology. Student Perceptions of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: A Study of Phenomenology, 10(3), 1515–1528.

Rahiem, M. D. (2021). Remaining motivated despite the limitations: University students’ learning propensity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Children and Youth Services Review, 120, 105802.

Rehman, R., & Fatima, S. S. (2021). An innovation in Flipped Class Room: A teaching model to facilitate synchronous and asynchronous learning during a pandemic. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(1), 131–136.

Rock, W. D., Remley, T. P., & Range, L. M. (2017). Principal-counselor collaboration and school climate. NASSP Bulletin, 101(1), 23–35.

Rulandari, N. (2020). The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the world of education in Indonesia. Ilomata International Journal of Social Science, 1(4), 242–250.

Rundgren, S.-N. C., Sun, Y., & Jidesjö, A. (2019). Examining Gender Differences in Students’ Entrance into and Persistence in STEM Programs in Swedish Higher Education. European Journal of Educational Sciences, 6(1), 66–94.

Samuelsson, M., & Samuelsson, J. (2016). Gender differences in boys’ and girls’ perception of teaching and learning mathematics. Open Review of Educational Research, 3(1), 18–34.

Saputra, W. N. E., Alhadi, S., Supriyanto, A., & Adiputra, S. (2021). The Development of Creative Cognitive-Behavior Counseling Model as a Strategy to Improve Self-Regulated Learning of Student. International Journal of Instruction, 14(2), 627–646.

Saputra, W. N. E., Alhadi, S., Supriyanto, A., Wiretna, C. D., & Baqiyatussolihat, B. (2018). Perbedaan Self-regulated Learning Siswa Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan berdasarkan Jenis Kelamin. Jurnal Kajian Bimbingan Dan Konseling, 3(3), 131–138.

Sharma, K., Deo, G., Timalsina, S., Joshi, A., Shrestha, N., & Neupane, H. C. (2020). Online learning in the face of COVID-19 pandemic: Assessment of students’ satisfaction at Chitwan medical college of Nepal. Kathmandu University Medical Journal, 18(2), 40–47.

Simamora, R. M. (2020). The Challenges of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: An essay analysis of performing arts education students. Studies in Learning and Teaching, 1(2), 86–103.

Sohn, K. (2015). Gender discrimination in earnings in Indonesia: A fuller picture. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 51(1), 95–121.

Song, J., Bong, M., Lee, K., & Kim, S. (2015). Longitudinal investigation into the role of perceived social support in adolescents’ academic motivation and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(3), 821–841.

Sulisworo, D., Hidayati, D., Bala, R., & Nasir, R. (2021). The Anomali on Technology Readiness Profile of Elementary School Teachers in Online Learning Amid Covid-19. Ilkogretim Online, 20(2), 9-21doi: 10.17051/ilkonline.2021.02.05.

Susskind, D., & Vines, D. (2020). The economics of the COVID-19 pandemic: An assessment. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 36(Supplement_1), S1–S13.

Syamsul, M. (2018). Education as a Foundation of Humanity: Learning from the Pedagogy of Pesantren in Indonesia. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 9(2), 104–123.

Syriopoulou-Delli, C. K., Cassimos, D. C., & Polychronopoulou, S. A. (2016). Collaboration between teachers and parents of children with ASD on issues of education. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 55, 330–345.

Tan, C. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on student motivation, community of inquiry and learning performance. Asian Education and Development Studies, 10(2), 308–321.

Topçu, S., & Leana-Taşcılar, M. Z. (2018). The role of motivation and self-esteem in the academic achievement of Turkish gifted students. Gifted Education International, 34(1), 3–18.

Turner, E. A., Chandler, M., & Heffer, R. W. (2009). The influence of parenting styles, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy on academic performance in college students. Journal of College Student Development, 50(3), 337–346.

Wijaya, T. T., Ying, Z., & Suan, L. (2020). Gender and self regulated learning during COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia. Jurnal Basicedu, 4(3), 725–732.

Xiong, J., Lipsitz, O., Nasri, F., Lui, L. M., Gill, H., Phan, L., Chen-Li, D., Iacobucci, M., Ho, R., & Majeed, A. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 277, 55–64.

Yau, H. K., & Cheng, A. L. F. (2012). Gender difference of confidence in using technology for learning. Journal of Technology Studies, 38(2), 74–79.

You, J. W. (2016). Identifying significant indicators using LMS data to predict course achievement in online learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 29, 23–30.

Yulia, H. (2020). Online learning to prevent the spread of pandemic corona virus in Indonesia. ETERNAL (English Teaching Journal), 11(1), 48–56.

Zhang, K., Wu, S., Xu, Y., Cao, W., Goetz, T., & Parks-Stamm, E. J. (2020). Adaptability promotes student engagement under COVID-19: The multiple mediating effects of academic emotion. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1–8.




How to Cite

Atmoko, A., Saputra, W. N. E., Hambali, I., & Wahyuni, E. T. . (2022). Achievement motivation and learning behavior of students during COVID-19 pandemic: gender differences. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 12(4), 260–268.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>